Articles

164 documents.
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Sabatés A., J. Salat, U. Tilves, V. Raya, J. E. Purcell, M. Pascual, J.-M. Gili, V.L. Fuentes
Journal of Marine Systems, 187, 52-61. DOI: 10.1016/j.jmarsys.2018.06.013 (BibTeX: sabates.etal.2018a)
Resum: Veure
This study investigates the possible pathways for Pelagia noctiluca intrusions over the shelf to understand the interactions between jellyfish and fish larvae. To assess how the presence of P. noctiluca may influence populations of Engraulis encrasicolus and Trachurus trachurus, we analyzed the effect of environmental conditions on the abundance and spatial distribution of P. noctiluca, medusae and ephyrae, and early life stages of these two fish species along the Catalan coast. The highest concentrations of P. noctiluca were found offshore, all along the Northern Current path. Their occurrence over the shelf was associated with intrusions of open sea waters that contoured anticyclonic eddies generated by the oscillatory behaviour of the current. Anchovy larvae were found widely over the shelf, but were especially abundant in the north and in waters influenced by the Ebro river. Spatial patterns of anchovy larvae were defined better by physical environmental factors than by the presence of P. noctiluca, whose distribution clearly was determined by the circulation. The differences in environmental conditions controlling the populations of P. noctiluca and E. encrasicolus larvae prevent their general coexistence over the shelf and prey-predator interactions remained limited to the areas affected by offshore intrusions. It is remarkable that the occurrence of T. trachurus larvae and juveniles was limited to locations over the shelf where jellyfish were observed and never offshore. This suggests that the association between fish and jellyfish occur once jellyfish have been advected from offshore towards the shelf, favouring the survival of larvae and juveniles of T. trachurus.
Paraules clau: Medusa; Engraulis encrasicolus; Trachurus trachurus; Shelf-slope front; Eddies; NW Mediterranean
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Salat J., A. Lavín, C. González-Pola, P. Vélez-Belchí, R. Sánchez, M. Vargas-Yáñez, J. García-Lafuente, M. Marcos, D. Gomis
CLIVAR Exchanges, 73, 32-38. (BibTeX: salat.etal.2017a)
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Sánchez E., B. Rodríguez, I. Bladé, M. Brunet, R. Aznar, I. Cacho, M.J. Casado, L. Gimeno, J.M. Gutiérrez, G. Jordá, A. Lavín, J.A. López, J. Salat, B. Valero
CLIVAR Exchanges, 73, 1-4. (BibTeX: sanchez.etal.2017b)
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Jordà G., K. Von Schuckmann, S.A. Josey, G. Caniaux, J. García-Lafuente, S. Sammartino, E. Özsoy, J. Polcher, G. Notarstefano, P.M. Poulain, F. Adloff, J. Salat, C. Naranjo, K. Schroeder, J. Chiggiato, G. Sannino, D. Macías
Progress in Oceanography, 156, 174-208. DOI: 10.1016/j.pocean.2017.07.001 (BibTeX: jorda.etal.2017)
Resum: Veure
This paper presents a review of the state-of-the-art in understanding and quantification of the Mediterranean heat and mass (i.e. salt and water) budgets. The budgets are decomposed into a basin averaged surface component, lateral boundary components (through the Gibraltar and the Dardanelles Straits), a river input component and a content change component. An assessment of the different meth- ods and observational products that have been used to quantify each of these components is presented. The values for the long term average of each component are also updated based on existing literature and a first estimate of heat fluxes associated with the riverine input has been produced. Special emphasis is put on the characterization of associated uncertainties and proposals for advancing current knowledge are presented for each budget component. With the present knowledge of the different components, the Mediterranean budgets can be closed within the range of uncertainty. However, the uncertainty range remains relatively high for several terms, particularly the basin averaged surface heat fluxes. Consequently, the basin averaged heat budget remains more strongly constrained by the Strait of Gibraltar heat transport than by the surface heat flux. It is worth remarking that if a short ($few years) averaging period is used, then the heat content change must also be considered to constrain the heat budget. Concerning the water and salt fluxes, the highest uncertainties are found in the direct estimates of the Strait of Gibraltar water and salt transport. Therefore, the indirect estimate of those transports using the budget closure leads to smaller uncertain- ties than the estimates based on direct observations. Finally, estimates of Mediterranean heat and salt content trends are also reviewed. However, these cannot be improved through the indirect estimates due to the large temporal uncertainties associated to the surface fluxes and the fluxes through Gibraltar. The consequences of these results for estimates of the Mediterranean temperature and salinity trends obtained from numerical modelling are also considered.
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Vargas-Yáñez M., M.C. García-Martínez, F. Moya, R. Balbín, J.L. López-Jurado, M. Serra, P. Zunino, J. Pascual, J. Salat
Progress in Oceanography, 157, 27-46. DOI: 10.1016/j.pocean.2017.09.004 (BibTeX: vargasyanez.etal.2017)
Resum: Veure
The RADMED project is devoted to the implementation and maintenance of a multidisciplinary monitoring system around the Spanish Mediterranean waters. This observing system is based on periodic multidisciplinary cruises covering the coastal waters, continental shelf and slope waters and some deep stations (> 2000 m) from the Westernmost Alboran Sea to Barcelona in the Catalan Sea, including the Balearic Islands. This project was launched in 2007 unifying and extending some previous monitoring projects which had a more reduced geo- graphical coverage. Some of the time series currently available extend from 1992, while the more recent ones were initiated in 2007. The present work updates the available time series up to 2015 (included) and shows the capability of these time series for two main purposes: the calculation of mean values for the properties of main water masses around the Spanish Mediterranean, and the study of the interannual and decadal variability of such properties. The data set provided by the RADMED project has been merged with historical data from the MEDAR/MEDATLAS data base for the calculation of temperature and salinity trends from 1900 to 2015. The analysis of these time series shows that the intermediate and deep layers of the Western Mediterranean have increased their temperature and salinity with an acceleration of the warming and salting trends from 1943. Trends for the heat absorbed by the water column for the 1943–2015 period, range between 0.2 and 0.6 W/m2 depending on the used methodology. The temperature and salinity trends for the same period and for the in- termediate layer are 0.002 °C/yr and 0.001 yr−1 respectively. Deep layers warmed and increased their salinity at a rate of 0.004 °C/yr and 0.001 yr−1.
Paraules clau: Western Mediterranean Monitoring program Warming and salting trends Climate change
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Aparicio F.L., M. Nieto-Cid, E. Calvo, C. Pelejero, A. López-Sanz, J. Pascual, J. Salat, E.D. Sánchez-Pérez, P. De La Fuente, J.M. Gasol, C. Marrasé
Science of The Total Environment, 609, 1001-1012. DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.07.170 (BibTeX: aparicio.etal.2017)
Resum: Veure
Marine biogeochemistry dynamics in coastal marine areas is strongly influenced by episodic events such as rain, in- tense winds, river discharges and anthropogenic activities. We evaluated in this study the importance of these forc- ing events on modulating seasonal changes in the marine biogeochemistry of the northwestern coast of the Mediterranean Sea, based on data gathered from a fixed coastal sampling station in the area. A 4-year (2011– 2014) monthly sampling at four depths (0.5 m, 20 m, 50 m and 80 m) was performed to examine the time variability of several oceanographic variables: seawater temperature, salinity, inorganic nutrient concentrations (NO−3 , PO34− and SiO2), chlorophyll a (Chl a), dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and fluorescent dissolved organic matter (FDOM). FDOM dynamics was predominantly influenced by upwelling events and mixing processes, driven by strong and characteristic wind episodes. SW wind episodes favored the upwelling of deeper and denser waters into the shallower shelf, providing a surplus of autochthonous humic-like material and inorganic nutrients, whereas northerlies favored the homogenization of the whole shelf water column by cooling and evaporation. These different wind-induced processes (deep water intrusion or mixing), reported along the four sampled years, determined a high interannual environmental variability in comparison with other Mediterranean sampling sites.
Paraules clau: NW Mediterranean Wind events Salinity Inorganic nutrients DOC FDOM
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Olivar M.P., J.I. González-Gordillo, J. Salat, G. Chust, A. Cózar, S. Hernández-León, M.L. Fernández de Puelles, X. Irigoien
Marine and Freshwater Research, 67, 8, 1114-1127. DOI: 10.1071/MF14391 (BibTeX: olivar.etal.2016)
Resum: Veure
Surface waters are an attractive foraging ground for small fish in the open ocean. This study aims to determine the importance of vertically migrating species in the neuston of oceanic waters across the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans and to ascertain the influence of environmental variables on their distribution patterns. Neustonic fish assemblages were primarily controlled by light. They were dominated by late-larvae and juveniles of Exocoetidae, Hemiramphidae and Scomberesocidae during the day. At night, the vertical migration of mesopelagic species changed the dominance pattern in favour of Myctophidae and Scomberesocidae. The neustonic families’ distribution was primarily related to sea surface temperatures, whereas environmental variables at deeper layers were related to mesopelagic migrating families. Canonical correspondence analysis showed a low but statistically significant contribution of several environmental variables to myctophid species composition (10%), with minimum oxygen concentrations ranking first in variance explanation followed by maximum fluorescence, sea surface temperature and 400-m temperature. Spatial autocorrelation also explained 17% of the variance, indicating the influence of other factors such as historical, demographic and dispersal constraints. The low number of myctophid species in the North Pacific Equatorial Countercurrent appears to be related to the low oxygen concentrations observed in this province.
Paraules clau: Ichthyoneuston, ichthyoplankton, micronekton, Myctophidae, oceanic realm, pelagic biogeography, vertical migration
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García-Ladona E., J. Salvador, P. Fernández, J.L. Pelegrí, P. Elósegui, O. Sánchez, J.A. Jiménez, F. Pérez, J. Ballabrera, J. Isern-Fontanet, J. Salat, J. Font
Scientia Marina, 80S1, 141-158. DOI: 10.3989/scimar.04325.14A (BibTeX: garcialadona.etal.2016d)
Resum: Veure
Since the mid-1980s, physical oceanographers at the Institute of Marine Sciences have been involved in the use of Lagrangian drifters as a complementary technology for their oceanographic research. As Lagrangian observations became more feasible, these researchers continued developing their own drifters in what was to be the seed of current technological activities at the Physical and Technological Oceanography Department. In this paper we overview the work done during the last 30 years with special focus on Lagrangian developments from the initial activities to the latest developments. In addition to basic oceanography research applications, Lagrangian technological developments include prototypes for measuring surface and subsurface ocean properties, for tracking purposes in search and rescue operations and pollution events, and for monitoring ice motion and thickness in the Arctic. The paper emphasizes original and unpublished technical aspects related to the latest developments.
Paraules clau: Lagrangian drifters; sea surface measurements; salinity measurements; oil spills drifters; SMOS.
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Maynou F., A. Sabatés, J. Salat
Climatic Change, 126, 1-2, 175-188. DOI: 10.1007/s10584-014-1194-0 (BibTeX: maynou.etal.2014b)
Resum: Veure
Knowledge of the effect of environmental variables on the early life history of fishes is essential to assess the effect of future environmental changes on the recruitment of commercial species. We investigate the effect of sea warming on two small pelagic fishes (Engraulis encrasicolus and Sardinella aurita) in the NW Mediterranean Sea based on the analysis of ichthyoplankton data collected in two surveys of contrasting conditions: the exceptionally warm summer of 2003, which may be indicative of conditions under future climate change scenarios, and the summer of 2004, with temperatures within the climatic average for the period 2000-2012. We use fine-resolution environmental variables measured locally and Generalized Additive Models to assess the influence of environment on these two summer-spawning small pelagic fishes. We show that sea surface temperature is the main environmental factor explaining abundance, but other factors (food availability and water currents) have additional roles tuning the effect of temperature. In the hot summer of 2003 we observed a decline of local egg production of anchovy and an increase of larval advection from the colder Gulf of Lions compared to 2004. Round sardinella spawning was higher in 2003 than in 2004 and extended over a wider area, but larvae viability was compromised by the lower availability of trophic resources. We hypothesize that future changes in environmental forcing on these two co-occurring summer spawning species will determine differential larval survival, with cascading effects on the upper trophic levels which feed on these species, including negative impacts on their fisheries.
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Estrada M., M. Latasa, M. Emelianov, A. Gutiérrez-Rodríguez, B. Fernández-Castro, J. Isern-Fontanet, B. Mouriño-Carballido, J. Salat, M. Vidal
Deep-Sea Research. Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers, 94, 45-61. DOI: 10.1016/j.dsr.2014.08.003 (BibTeX: estrada.etal.2014c)
Resum: Veure
The phytoplankton bloom in the Liguro-Provençal deep convection region represents one of the main fertilization mechanisms in the Mediterranean. This communication examines nano- and microphyto- plankton observations, and measurements of primary production and chlorophyll a concentration (Chl a) in the southwestern part of the deep convection region, where such information is scarce. Data were obtained from four cruises, carried out in 2005 (EFLUBIO project) and 2009 (FAMOSO project), covering the seasonality between mid-March and September in the region.Our aims were to constrain primary production estimates and to ascertain the importance of short-term variability on the photosynthetic response of phytoplankton assemblages during bloom, post-bloom and late-summer stratification periods in the area. Overall, the initial slope of the P–E relationship (αB) increased and the Chl a-normalized photosynthetic rate(PBm) decreased with increasing optical depth of sample origin,but there were exceptions. In general, there were marked seasonal trends , with stratification increasing and Chl a concentration, primary production and dissolved inorganic nitrogen and phosphate fluxes decreasing from winter to late summer. Chl a at 5 m depth reached a maximum of 7 mg m-3 on 25 March 2005, one of the highest values measured in the region. Average surface values (+-SD) ranged from respectively 2.4+-2.3 mg m-3 and 2+-0.7 mgm-3 in the March 2005 and March 2009 cruises to 0.12+-0.01mg m-3 in the September 2009 cruise. Vertically integrated (0–80 m) primary production (PP int) attained 1800mg Cm-2 d-1 in March 2009, with an average of 1024+-523 mg Cm-2 d-1, and decreased to a mean of 141+-0.43 mg Cm-2 d-1 in September 2009. Superimposed to the seasonal trends, there was a considerable within-cruise variability of biomass and primary production, especially during the spring-winter bloom and post-bloom periods, when PPint could change more than threefold within a few days. These differences were mainly associated with the intense hydrographic mesoscale and sub-mesoscale heterogeneity in the region and with the differences in the physiological and ecological history of the phytoplankton communities in habiting the different water bodies. In late summer, most PP int variability could be explained by fluctuations insurface incident irradiance
Paraules clau: Phytoplankton, Chlorophyll a, Primary production, NW Mediterranea, Seasonal bloom, Mesoscale
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Lleonart J., F. Maynou, J. Salat
Scientia Marina, 77, 1, 81-93. DOI: 10.3989/scimar.03691.04A (BibTeX: lleonart.etal.2013)
Resum: Veure
An asymmetric index was developed to measure the competition relationships among fishing fleets (or gears or métiers) in a multispecies fishery. This index can be used to measure the degree of dominance of each fleet and its level of independence from competition. To illustrate the concepts, the index is applied to two case studies using two datasets, both from Catalonia, NW Mediterranean. The results show that in both case studies the dominance of bottom trawl over most other gears (especially small-scale ones) is evidenced and quantitatively measured. Bottom trawl is also highly independent of the others. Purse seine appears to be quite independent, but not dominant over the other gears. A practical use of these asymmetric indices is to assist fisheries managers in the decision-making process to optimize the allocation of fishing effort, including energy efficiency, and to reduce environmental impact.
Paraules clau: gear competition, asymmetric index, Mediterranean fisheries
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Emelianov M., J. Font, P. Puig, J. Martín, E. García Ladona, J. Salat, A. Ostrovskii, A. Zatsepin, V. Kremenetskiy, V. Soloviev, A. Tsibulskiy, D. Shvoev
, Rapports et Proces-verbaux des Réunions. Com. Int. Explor. Sci. Mer Mediterranée, CIESM.. 40, (BibTeX: emelianov.etal.2013a)
Resum: Veure
A pilot experiment aiming at investigating the small scale dynamics and variability of the seawater fine thermohaline structure, the processes of vertical exchange of momentum and mass, and mechanisms of the nepheloid layer formation in the Besòs submarine canyon, situated in the continental slope close to Barcelona, was carried out by using the prototype moored profiler “Aqualog”.
Paraules clau: Instruments and techniques, North-Western Mediterranean
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Schroeder K., C. Millot, L. Bengara, S. Ben Ismail, M. Bensi, M. Borghini, G. Budillon, V. Cardin, L. Coppola, C. Curtil, A. Drago, B. El Moumni, J. Font, J.L. Fuda, J. García-Lafuente, G.P. Gasparini, H. Kontoyiannis, D. Lefevre, P. Puig, P. Raimbault, G. Rougier, J. Salat, C. Sammari, J.C. Sánchez Garrido, A. Sanchez-Roman, S. Sparnocchia, C. Tamburini, I. Taupier-Letage, A. Theocharis, M. Vargas-Yáñez, A. Vetrano
Ocean Science, 9, 301-324. DOI: 10.5194/os-9-301-2013 (BibTeX: schroeder.etal.2013a)
Resum: Veure
The long-term monitoring of basic hydrological parameters (temperature and salinity), collected as time series with adequate temporal resolution (i.e. with a sampling interval allowing the resolution of all important timescales) in key places of the Mediterranean Sea (straits and channels, zones of dense water formation, deep parts of the basins), constitute a priority in the context of global changes. This led CIESM (The Mediterranean Science Commission) to support, since 2002, the HYDROCHANGES programme (www.ciesm.org/marine/programs/hydrochanges.htm), a network of autonomous conductivity, temperature, and depth (CTD) sensors, deployed on mainly short and easily manageable subsurface moorings, within the core of a certain water mass. The HYDROCHANGES strategy is twofold and develops on different scales. To get information about long-term changes of hydrological characteristics, long time series are needed. But before these series are long enough they allow the detection of links between them at shorter timescales that may provide extremely valuable information about the functioning of the Mediterranean Sea. The aim of this paper is to present the history of the programme and the current set-up of the network (monitored sites, involved groups) as well as to provide for the first time an overview of all the time series collected under the HYDROCHANGES umbrella, discussing the results obtained thanks to the programme.
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García-Ladona E., J. Salat, J. Ballabrera
In: El Agua y la Vida. Cooperación en la Esfera del Agua, Ed. M. Boada, R. Maneja. Lunwerg. 68-71. ISBN: 978-84-15888-08-6 (BibTeX: garcialadona.etal.2013a)
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Ribó M., P. Puig, J. Salat, A. Palanques
Journal of Marine Systems, 111-112, 130-138. DOI: 10.1016/j.jmarsys.2012.10.008 (BibTeX: ribo.etal.2013)
Resum: Veure
According to previous studies, the surface circulation of the Gulf of Valencia (GoV) is characterized by a convergence between the southwestward Northern Current carrying old Atlantic Waters (oAW) and the northward intrusions of recent Atlantic Waters (rAW) imported through the Ibiza Channel. This paper focuses on the distribution of the suspended sediment concentration in the GoV obtained from a dense grid of CTD observations in June 1995 during the oceanographic cruise MESO\'95 (MESOscale processes). We evaluate the relation between currents, water masses and the nepheloid structure at the time of the survey. Results showed higher suspended sediment concentration (SSC) in the oAW than in the rAW. At the shelf-break depth, an important detachment of particulate matter was observed off Cap La Nao, extending seawards all across the Ibiza Channel. The presence of this intermediate nepheloid layer detachment indicates a preferential off-shelf sediment export at the southern end of the GoV, where the orientation of the continental margin changes, and oAW and rAW merge. On the continental slope, several nepheloid layers detachments were observed between 400 and 600 m, where the Levantine Intermediate Water (LIW) interacts with the seafloor, suggesting the possible presence of internal waves causing sediment resuspension and/or maintaining particles in suspension in the mid-slope region. A bottom nepheloid layer was also observed at deeper locations along the central and southern part of the GoV continental slope, but not at the Ibiza Sill.
Paraules clau: Marine circulation; Sediment dynamics; Nepheloid layers; Gulf of Valencia; NW Mediterranean
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Sabatés A., J. Salat, V. Raya, M. Emelianov
Journal of Marine Systems, 111-112, 108-119. DOI: 10.1016/j.jmarsys.2012.10.002 (BibTeX: sabates.etal.2013)
Resum: Veure
In recent years a northward expansion of Sardinella aurita has been reported in the Western Mediterranean. Spawning of this species takes place in summer coinciding with Engraulis encrasicolus, the dominant species in the region. Since both species inhabit the continental shelf, their larvae coexist during this period of the year. The circulation in the region is characterized by the Northern current, flowing along the continental slope. This current displays strong mesoscale activity presenting a meandering path and series of anticyclonic eddies over the shelf. These eddies are fed from offshore by the Northern current and by coastal waters from inshore thus merging and concentrating water from their both sides. The study analyses the role of mesoscale eddies shaping the distribution of S. aurita and E. encrasicolus larvae along the Catalan coast. Data covering the whole shelf and slope were obtained in 3 oceanographic cruises conducted in the summers of 2003 and 2004. E. encrasicolus larvae were found scattered on the whole continental shelf being particularly abundant over the shelf break and in the northern third of the region, associated with the intrusion of the Northern current. S. aurita larvae showed a more coastal distribution, being almost absent at the shelf break and under the influence of the Northern current. The observed spatial distribution of larval sizes evidenced the spawning preferences of each species and the transport and concentration of larvae of both species inside the eddies, as they entrain water from its two sides. This behaviour helps to ensure better survival conditions due to higher food availability brought from the offshore side but in an environment without dispersion.
Paraules clau: Engraulis encrasicolus; Sardinella aurita; Larvae; Circulation; Eddies; Mediterranean
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Salat J., M. Umbert, J. Ballabrera-Poy, P. Fernández, J. Salvador, J. Martínez
Contributions to Science, 9, 1, 89-100. DOI: 10.2436/20.7010.01.167 (BibTeX: salat.etal.2013)
Resum: Veure
The oceans not only cover about three quarters of the Earth’s surface but they also constitute the most relevant climate driver. However, our present knowledge about the oceans is by no means comparable to that of terrestrial or atmospheric systems. Salinity and temperature are key parameters to understand the dynamics of the oceans; but a global network of observations is lacking in spite of valuable data on the oceans that are being accumulated through oceanographic campaigns and by using automated devices, fixed moorings, drifting instrumented buoys, and ships of opportunity. In addition, during the last 40 years, remotely sensed data from satellites have offered almost synoptic information describing the Earth’s surface. This information includes sea surface temperature, which has been routinely monitored; by contrast, ocean surface salinity was not remotely measured until very recently. The Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite, launched in November 2009, has been the first attempt to obtain remotely sensed surface salinity data. In this context, the Barcelona World Race has provided new opportunities not only to obtain a worldwide sequence of sea surface temperature and salinity data, through one of the participating ships, but also to validate the first salinity data obtained by the SMOS.
Paraules clau: sea surface temperature and salinity · ocean circumnavigation · ocean races · ships of opportunity · SMOS
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Puig P., X. Durrieu de Madron, J. Salat, K. Schroeder, J. Martín, A. P. Karageorgis, A. Palanques, F. Roullier, J. L. Lopez-Jurado, M. Emelianov, T. Moutin, L. Houpert.
Progress in Oceanography, 111, 1-23. DOI: 10.1016/j.pocean.2012.10.003 (BibTeX: puig.etal.2013)
Resum: Veure
The analysis of a compilation of deep CTD casts conducted in the western Mediterranean from 1998 to 2011 has documented the role that dense water formation, and particularly deep dense shelf water cascading off the Gulf of Lions, plays in transporting suspended particulate matter from the coastal regions down to the basin. Deep CTD casts reveal that after the 1999 and 2005–2006 deep cascading events the Western Mediterranean Deep Water (WMDW) was characterized by the presence of a thick bottom nepheloid layer (BNL) that corresponded in thickness with a thermohaline anomaly generated by the mixture of dense waters formed by deep convection in the open sea and by deep cascading. This BNL can be hundreds of meters thick and in the central part of the basin usually exhibits suspended sediment concentrations of <0.1 mg/l above background levels, reaching higher concentrations close to the continental rise, with near-bottom peaks >1 mg/l. After winter 1999 the BNL spread from the Gulf of Lions and the Catalan margin over the northwestern Mediterranean basin, reaching west of the Balearic Islands and the Ligurian Sea, while after winters 2005–2006 the BNL covered the entire western Mediterranean basin. Thickness and concentration of the BNL tend to diminish with time but this trend is highly dependent on the volume of dense water generated, both by convection and cascading. After winter 1999 the BNL signal vanished in one year, but after winters 2005–2006 it lasted for longer and the turbidity signal can still be distinguished at present (2011). Particle size distribution in the BNL reveals the presence of large aggregates up to 1 mm in size formed by a mixture of single particles with the same bimodal grain size distribution as the surface sediments found in the northwestern Mediterranean slope and basin. Results presented in this paper highlight the fact that the WMDW can be periodically affected by the arrival of new dense waters loaded with suspended particles mainly introduced by resuspension processes during major cascading events, being a key process that could ultimately affect deep-sea biogeochemical cycles in the western Mediterranean.
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Vargas-Yañez M., P. Zunino, K. Schroeder, J.L. López Jurado, F. Plaza, M. Serra, C. Castro, M.C. García- Martínez, F. Moya, J. Salat
Journal of Marine Systems, 105-108, 52-59. DOI: 10.1016/j.marsys.2012.05.010 (BibTeX: vargasyanez.etal.2012b)
Resum: Veure
TheWestern Intermediate Water (WIW) is probably the less studied watermass in the WesternMediterranean (WMED). It is clearly identifiable as a temperature minimum above the Levantine IntermediateWater (LIW). The WIW circulation from the northern part of the WMED to the south and through the Balearic Channels is well known, but no specific experiments have been devoted to the study of the formation process of this water mass. It is usually accepted, in a vague sense, that WIW is formed in the northern sector of the WMED, in areas surrounding the Gulf of Lions, the Ligurian Sea and the Catalan Sea, being advected towards the Balearic Channels as part of the northern current. The present work shows hydrographic data obtained in late winter in 2010 after severe storms in theWMED. These data showintermediate convective mixing along the whole continental shelf of the Iberian Peninsula, as far to the south as Cape Palos. The data analysed showthat, under severe winter conditions, the formation area ofWIWis larger than previously thought and the salinity and temperature ranges for this water mass are also wider than those traditionally accepted in the literature.
Paraules clau: Western Intermediate Water Intermediate convection Western Mediterranean Balearic Channels Catalan Sea
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Ribó M., P. Puig, J. Salat, A. Palanques
Geo-Temas, 13, 589-592. (BibTeX: ribo.etal.2012c)
Resum: Veure
Diversos estudios han descrito la circulación y dinámica en el golfo de Valencia con el objetivo de entender las interacciones entre masas de agua. Sin embargo, no se ha abordado aún el estudio de la dinámica sedimentaria ni de la distribución de material particulado en suspensión. En la campaña oceanográfica MESO’95 se cubrió esta región con una malla de perfiles verticales de temperatura, salinidad, fluorescencia y turbidez mediante un CTD equipado con un fluorómetro y un transmisómetro. En este artículo se presentan los resultados de estos perfiles hidrográficos. Se observaron varios despegues de capas nefeloides en el talud, entre 400 y 600 m de profundidad, coincidiendo con la capa de Agua Levantina Intermedia (LIW), sugiriendo la existencia de procesos de resuspension del sedimento por ondas internas en el talud intermedio. Capas nefeloides de fondo fueron también observadas en la parte central y sur del golfo de Valencia. Frente al cabo La Nao, a profundidades de borde de plataforma, se identificó un importante despegue de material particulado que se extendía mar adentro cubriendo totalmente el canal de Ibiza. Su presencia indica un transporte preferencial del sedimento de plataforma al sur del golfo de Valencia, donde cambia la orientación del margen continental.
Paraules clau: Capas nefeloides, dinámica sedimentaria, ondas internas, Golfo de Valencia
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Salat J., J. Pascual
Proceedings VII Congreso Ibérico sobre Gestión y Planificación del Agua “Ríos Ibéricos +10. Mirando al futuro tras 10 años de DMA”, . 6 pp. Talavera de la Reina, Toledo. (BibTeX: salat.pascual.2011a)
Resum: Veure
En esta comunicación se presentan observaciones a escala local que muestran un adelanto y prolongación de las condiciones estivales de estratificación dentro del agua, relacionado con la tendencia generalizada al calentamiento en las últimas décadas. Aunque estos cambios no siempre son significativos frente a oscilaciones interanuales y decadales, están empezando a tener impactos sobre la dinámica de las aguas costeras, en algunos organismos marinos y en los intercambios de calor entre la atmósfera y el mar. Para ilustrar esta situación, se muestran dos ejemplos de estos impactos sobre el ecosistema marino del Mediterráneo Noroccidental, y se discute su importancia en el contexto del cambio global en aguas costeras y las posibles alteraciones que pueden generar en las condiciones de referencia para estas aguas.
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Salat J., I. Palomera, J. Lloret, I. Solé
Proceedings VII Congreso Ibérico sobre Gestión y Planificación del Agua “Ríos Ibéricos +10. Mirando al futuro tras 10 años de DMA”, . 6 pp. Talavera de la Reina, Toledo. (BibTeX: salat.etal.2011a)
Resum: Veure
En el III Congreso Ibérico se presentó una ponencia sobre el impacto de los aportes del Ebro sobre la población de anchoa de la región. Se utilizó un modelo de series temporales Box-Jenkins que analizaba los caudales en época de reproducción y las capturas de anchoa con datos de 1991 a 2001, y se observó una dependencia significativa de éstas con los caudales del año anterior. Actualmente, con 9 años más de información, obtenemos una mayor dependencia. Ello en parte se debe a la caída de capturas de mediados de la última década, por sobrepesca unida a bajos caudales, que casi lleva la especie al colapso en la zona. No obstante, y a pesar de la ausencia de nuevas medidas de protección, el aumento de caudales en los últimos tres años ha favorecido un cierto incremento de capturas, aunque sin evidente recuperación de biomasa
Paraules clau: Series temporales, Capturas de anchoa, Caudales del Ebro, Modelos Box-Jenkins
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Vargas-Yáñez M., F. Moya, M.C. García-Martínez, E. Tel, P. Zunino, F. Plaza, J. Salat, J. Pascual, J.L. López-Jurado, M. Serra
Journal of Marine Systems, 82, 3, 171-176. DOI: 10.1016/j.jmarsys.2010.04.013 (BibTeX: vargasyanez.etal.2010c)
Resum: Veure
The deep waters in the Western Mediterranean (> 600 m) are the result of mixing between the two water masses above it (Atlantic Water, 0–200 m and Levantine Intermediate Water, 200–600 m) and heat and buoyancy losses in late winter. Deep waters in the Western Mediterranean have undergone a continuous warming during the second half of the twentieth century and initially it was hypothesized that this had been caused by the warming of the contributing water masses, very likely linked to global warming. Nevertheless, no clear signals of warming have been detected in the intermediate layers and no warming trends were detected in the upper layer before the 1980s. This fact suggested that the cause of deep water warming could be linked to river damming and the consequent salinity increase, instead of to an increase of the heat absorbed by the upper ocean, as in other parts of the world ocean. In this work we use the data base MEDATLAS and data from more recent monitoring programs to construct the longest temperature and salinity time series ever analysed in the Western Mediterranean (1900 to 2008). These time series show that both the upper and intermediate layers have warmed throughout the twentieth century. Long term and decadal variability in the upper layer correlate with surface air temperature in the northern hemisphere and heat absorbed by the upper North Atlantic Ocean, suggesting that the time series analysed in this work reflect the present heat absorption of the oceans in the context of global warming. The present data set highlights the importance of monitoring programs and provides a proxy for the study of climate change.
Paraules clau: Western Mediterranean; Climate change; Monitoring systems; Time series; Trend detection
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Karp-Boss L., E. Boss, H. Weller, J. Loftin, J. Albright. Traducción de: J. Ballabrera, E. Berdalet, M. Claret, E. García-Ladona, A. García-Olivares, A. López de Aretxabaleta, J. Salat, A. Turiel, Á. Viúdez
In: Oceanography, Vol. 22. Ed. Ellen Kappel and Vicky Cullen. The Oceanography Society. Chap. 3. 54 pp. (BibTeX: karpboss.etal.2010d)
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Puig P., X. Durrieu de Madron, K. Schroedor, J. Salat, J.L. López-Jurado, G.P. Gasparini, A. Palanques, M. Emelianov
Geo-Temas, 11, 141-142. (BibTeX: puig.etal.2010e)
Resum: Veure
The analysis of a compilation of deep CTD casts conducted in the western Mediterranean after winter 2005 have documented the role that dense shelf water cascading (DSWC) plays in transporting suspended particulate matter from the coastal regions down to the basin. Deep CTD casts revealed the formation of thick and persistent bottom nepheloid layer (BNL) associated with the winter 2005 DSWCevent, which was not present in 2004. This BNL spread throughout the western Mediterranean basin and scaled in thickness with a thermo-haline anomaly generated by the mixture of dense waters formed by deep convection in the open sea and by cascading, being up to 1450 m thick at some locations. Excess of concentrations within the BNL could be observed to progress from the Gulf of Lions and Catalan margin towards the central part of the basin, reaching south of the Balearic Islands and west of Sardinia in May 2005, and covered the entire western Mediterranean basin in June 2006. BNL thickness and concentration diminished with distance away from its source and also with time, although its turbidity signal can still be detected at present (2010).
Paraules clau: cascading, suspended particles, bottom nepheloid layer, Gulf o Lions, western Mediterranean
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Schroeder K., V. Cardin, J. Font, J. Fuda, J. García Lafuente, P. Puig, I. Taupier-Letage, L. Bengara, S. Ben Ismail, M. Bensi, M. Borghini, C. Curtil, J. Delgado, C. Millot, B. El Moumni, J.G.P. Gasparini, D. Lefevre, J. López-Jurado, P. Raimbault, G. Rougier, J. Salat, C. Sammari, A. Sanchez-Roman, C. Tamburini, A. Theocharis, M. Vargas-Yañez
, Rapports et Proces-verbaux des Réunions. Com. Int. Explor. Sci. Mer Mediterranée, CIESM.. Ed. CIESM. 39, 180. (BibTeX: schroeder.etal.2010c)
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Vargas-Yañez M., F. Moya, M. García.Martínez, E. Tel, P. Zunino, F. Plaza, J. Salat, J. Pascual, J. López -Jurado, M. Serra
, Rapports et Proces-verbaux des Réunions. Com. Int. Explor. Sci. Mer Mediterranée, CIESM.. Ed. CIESM. 39, 195. (BibTeX: vargasyanez.etal.2010f)
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Salat J.,
74, 197-201. ISSN: 0214-8358 (BibTeX: salat.2010a)
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Puig P., X. Durrrieu de Madron, K. Schroeder, J. Salat, J.L. López-Jurado, G.P. Gasparini, A. Palanques, M. Emelianov, A.P. Karageorgis, A. Theocharis
, Rapports et Proces-verbaux des Réunions. Com. Int. Explor. Sci. Mer Mediterranée, CIESM.. Ed. CIESM. 39, 163. (BibTeX: puig.etal.2010f)
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Salat J., P. Puig, M. Latasa
Advances in Geosciences, 26, 53-59. DOI: 10.5194/adgeo-26-53-2010 (BibTeX: salat.etal.2010a)
Resum: Veure
Heat and water exchanges in the ocean occur almost exclusively at the surface. As water compressibility is very low, stratification of the fluid is expected and horizontal motion is predominant in the sea interior. Among the few processes that may introduce a vertical component in the water motion are those that increase surface water density by freezing, cooling or evaporation. Those processes triggering convective motion are enhanced by cold surface air, dry wind and low solar radiation. Therefore, convective cells are more likely to occur when the temperature of the air at the sea surface is lower than sea surface temperature. Conversely, rain, river runoff, solar heating, calm and condensation at surface enhance stratification. Convective motion at sea has several scales ranging from few meters at the upper ocean, causing the surface mixed layer, to the entire water column, in what is known as deep convection. Only few places in the world ocean are suitable for deep convection, and only under particular weather conditions. In this paper, a brief review of the response to these particular conditions in the NW Mediterranean is presented in what is known as dense water formation. The violent sinking and spreading of water parcels that reach the deep sea floor in few hours is described. These are “hidden” mediterranean storms, occurring under the sea surface, “on the other side of the mirror”.
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Salat J., M. Emelianov, P. Puig, J. Font, L. Fuda
, Rapports et Proces-verbaux des Réunions. Com. Int. Explor. Sci. Mer Mediterranée, CIESM.. Ed. CIESM. 39, 174. (BibTeX: salat.etal.2010e)
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Font J., K. Béranger, H. Bryden, G. Budillon, J.L. Fuda, M. Gacic, J.C. Gascard, T. Packard, P. Puig, W. Roether, J. Salat, E. Salusti, K. Schroeder, A. Theocharis, H. van Haren
CIESM Workshop Monographs, 38, 5-17. (BibTeX: font.etal.2009l)
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Salat J., M. Emelianov, P. Puig.
CIESM 2009. Dynanics of Mediterranean deep waters, CIESM Workshop Monographs. 38, 41-49. ISSN: 1726-5886 (BibTeX: salat.etal.2009k)
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Coma R., M. Ribes, E. Serrano, E. Jiménez, J. Salat, J. Pascual
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 106, 15, 6176-6181. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0805801106 (BibTeX: coma.etal.2009b)
Resum: Veure
Summer conditions in the Mediterranean Sea are characterized by high temperatures and low food availability. This leads to “summer dormancy” in many benthic suspension feeders due to energetic constraints. Analysis of the most recent 33-year temperature time series demonstrated enhanced stratification due to global warming, which produced a ≈40% lengthening of summer conditions. Many biological processes are expected to be affected by this trend, culminating in such events as mass mortality of invertebrates. Climatic anomalies concomitant with the occurrence of these events represent prolonged exposure to warmer summer conditions coupled with reduced food resources. Simulation of the effects of these conditions on a model organism demonstrated a biomass loss of >35%. Losses of this magnitude result in mortality similar to that noted in field observations during mass mortality events. These results indicate that temperature anomalies are the underlying cause of the events, with energetic constraints serving as the main triggering mechanism.
Paraules clau: climatic anomalies , summer lengthening , energetic constraints , benthic suspension feeders, extreme events
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Puig P., A. Palanques, J. Font, J. Salat, M. Latasa, R. Scharek
, CIESM Workshop Monographs. 38, 103-106. ISSN: 1726-5886 (BibTeX: puig.etal.2009g)
Resum: Veure
We focus here on microbial respiration and its potential enhancement by organic-carbon injection via Deep and Intermediate Water formation in the western Mediterranean Sea. Electron transport system (ETS) activities of the nanoplankton and microplankton in the intermediate and deep water from this area show unexpected enhancement. Since ETS is a proxy for respiration these measurements indicate elevated respiration in these waters. In addition, they suggest horizontal transport of organic-carbon rich water-masses. In the western Mediterranean Sea the metabolic rates below 1,500 m were greater than rates at the same depths in the Atlantic. When all the profiles were corrected to the same temperature and normalized by the metabolic rate at 200 m, the Western Mediterranean rates were greater than rates from the same depths in both the Atlantic and equatorial Pacific Oceans. They also exceeded rates predicted from sediment traps. Furthermore they were not consistent with organic matter being supplied via rapidly sinking particulate material. Instead, they may be supported by dissolved organic carbon (DOC) transported to depth by eddies (van Haren et al., 2006), wintertime deepwater convection, or the type of wintertime cold-water cascading recently observed in the canyons on the Catalan-Occitan continental shelf and slope (Canals et al., 2006; Font et al., 2007).
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Sabatés A., J. Salat, V. Raya, M. Emelianov, M. Segura-Noguera
Marine Ecology Progress Series, 385, 227-236. DOI: 10.3354/meps08058 (BibTeX: sabates.etal.2009c)
Resum: Veure
In the last 20 yr, an increasing abundance and northward expansion of Sardinella aurita has been reported in the western Mediterranean. The present study characterizes the spawning habitat of S. aurita at the northern limit of their geographic distribution and determines the hydrodynamic conditions that could control their northward expansion in the western Mediterranean. Data along the Catalan shelf and slope were obtained in 4 oceanographic cruises conducted in the summers of 2003 and 2004. A clear preference for spawning in coastal areas shallower than 100 m was determined, with larvae showing a wider distribution extending offshore up to the position of the 150 m isobath. The greatest abundance of eggs and larvae was found in the southern half of the area on the wide shelf near the mouth of the Ebro River. This zone was characterized by high values of surface chlorophyll a in association with relatively low salinity waters from the Ebro River. In the northern part of the area, a thermal front across the shelf, with higher sea surface temperatures on its southern side, marked the northern limit of egg and larvae distribution. The northern side of this front was under the direct influence of the shelf–slope current, advecting slope waters from the north, while its southern side was dominated by coastal water. Larvae carried by coastal waters tended to concentrate near the convergence associated with the front. Thus, the thermal front retains and concentrates S. aurita larvae, and could represent one of the limiting factors for the expansion of the species towards the north.
Paraules clau: Sardinella aurita · Spawning · Eggs · Larvae · Circulation · Retention · Northwestern Mediterranean
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Vargas Yáñez M., M.C. García Martínez, F. Moya Ruiz, E. Tel, G. Parrilla, F. Plaza, A. Lavín, M. J. García, J. Salat, J. Pascual, J. García Lafuente, D. Gomis, E. Álvarez, M. García Sotillo, C. González-Pola, F. Polvorinos, E. Fraile Nuez
Ed. Inst. Español de Oceanografía, Minist. de Educación y Ciencia. IEO. 1, In: Temas de Oceanografía. 1-170. ISBN: 84-95877-39 -2 (BibTeX: vargasyanez.etal.2008i)
Resum: Veure
Semi-enclosed and bounded by three continents, the Mediterranean sea is a region highly vulnerable to human activities, i.e.: the population surge along the coasts, the tourism pressure, the maritime traffic, the agriculture and the fishery exploitation, all have a potential impact on the Mediterranean environment. In addition, effective initiatives against the Global Climate Change need to be attempted in order to preserve our marine environment and to achieve a sustainable development of its resources. Prevention and adaptation to this new threat must be based on the rigorous and scientific knowledge accomplished through the systematic and continuous observation of the sea, and through the collection of multidisciplinary time-series and the subsequent analysis. This report responds to this necessity. The main goals of the Instituto Español de Oceanografía (IEO) are to generate scientific knowledge, as well as to assess and to inform the public about the state of the sea. The IEO is primary focussed on the study of the variety of phenomena influencing spanish coasts, including the process of Climate Change. To meet these objectives, a large set of actions have been planned. Some of them are already being implemented, such as a multidisciplinary observation system in the shelf and continental slope waters, or periodic scientific reports dealing with the detection and quantification of Climate Change effects and of other possible environmental impacts. The present report is the first of a series of future contributions. Besides the IEO, other Spanish institutions such as the ICM (CSIC), Puertos del Estado (PE), the IMEDEA (CSIC), the UMA, the UIB and the INM, involved in the monitoring, analysis and modelling of the Mediterranean sea, have also participated in it. The results show clear evidences of the effect of Climate Change in the physical properties of the mediterranean waters since 1948; in particular, the temperature and salinity increase of the deep waters, the accelerated rise of sea level since the early 1990s, and the air and sea surface temperature increase during the second half of the XX century.
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Sabatés A., N. Zaragoza, C. Grau, J. Salat
Marine Ecology Progress Series, 364, 169-180. DOI: 10.3354/meps07461 (BibTeX: sabates.etal.2008)
Resum: Veure
In recent years a northward expansion of Sardinella aurita has been reported in the western Mediterranean. Considering the coexistence of its larvae with those of the dominant species Engraulis encrasicolus, the present study was conducted to compare their vertical distributions in 2 areas off the Catalan coast with different vertical environmental conditions. During summer, the water column was stratified with a deep chlorophyll maximum (DCM) beneath the pycnocline. However, the southern area, under the influence of the Ebro River, was characterized by a secondary surface chlorophyll maximum. Vertical distribution of larval food, nauplii and copepodites showed good agreement with the high chlorophyll layers. In the earliest stages of development, larvae of both species remained in the upper levels. From 6 mm standard length on they developed a day/night migratory behaviour to search for food during the day (feeding period). Therefore, in the south, where the abundance of potential food in the upper layers was relatively high, larvae of both species remained in the upper levels during the day. However, in the north, where food was restricted to the DCM, only E. encrasicolus larvae were able to reach these deep levels. The low temperatures (~15°C) detected at the DCM may restrict the vertical migration of S. aurita in accordance with their thermophilic character. This limitation might might represent a restriction for the northward expansion of this species in the western Mediterranean.
Paraules clau: Sardinella aurita · Engraulis encrasicolus · Larvae · Eggs · Microzooplankton · Vertical distribution · NW Mediterranean
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Vargas-Yáñez M., Mª.J. García, J. Salat, M.C. García-Martínez, J. Pascual, F. Moya
Global and Planetary Change, 63, 2-3, 177-184. DOI: 10.1016/j.gloplacha.2007.09.001 (BibTeX: vargasyanez.etal.2008a)
Resum: Veure
We analyse hydrographic, meteorological and sea level time series in the continental shelves of Málaga Bay and L'Estartit, in the South and North Western Mediterranean. We have detected an important reduction of the warming rates reported for the 90s decade, showing that the warming process of the Mediterranean is superimposed on several years lasting oscillations. These accelerations or interruptions, typically account for a fraction of the total trend, and therefore they are not able to obscure the warming detection if the time series are long enough. On the other hand, they can produce artificial results if the time series are short when compared with the length of these cycles. The warming of the shelf waters, its acceleration during the 90s and the reversal during the beginning of the XXI century, are also observed in air temperature time series along the Spanish Mediterranean. We have also checked the influence of the warming acceleration/disruption on the sea level rise. Mean sea level trends are around 1 mm/yr when long time series are analysed, but shorter time series can result in rising trends as large as 13 mm/yr, for accelerated warming periods, or even no sea level change for reversals of the warming trends. Another factor to study is the influence of the NAO on these warming/cooling periods as well as on the strength of upwelling favourable winds, which could have a great importance on shelf ecosystems.
Paraules clau: Western Mediterranean; continental shelf; warming trends; sea level; NAO index
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Pastor M.V., J.L. Pelegrí, A. Hernández-Guerra, J. Font, J. Salat, M. Emelianov
Continental Shelf Research, 28, 7, 915-936. DOI: 10.1016/j.csr.2008.01.011 (BibTeX: pastor.etal.2008)
Resum: Veure
A historical data set is used to describe the coastal transition zone off Northwest Africa during spring 1973 and fall 1975, from 17° to 26°N, with special emphasis on the interaction between subtropical (North Atlantic Central Waters) and tropical (South Atlantic Central Waters) gyres. The near-surface geostrophic circulation, relative to 300 m, is quite complex. Major features are a large cyclonic pattern north of Cape Blanc (21°N) and offshore flow at the Cape Verde front. The large cyclone occurs in the region of most intense winds, and resembles a large meander of the baroclinic southward upwelling jet. The Cape Verde frontal system displays substantial interleaving that may partly originate as mesoscale features at the coastal upwelling front. Property–property diagrams show that the front is an effective barrier to all properties except temperature. The analysis of the Turner angle suggests that the frontal system is characterized by large heat horizontal diffusion as a result of intense double diffusion, which results in the smoothing of the temperature horizontal gradients. Nine cross-shore sections are used to calculate along-shore geostrophic water-mass and nutrient transports and to infer exchanges between the coastal transition zone and the deep ocean (import: deep ocean to transition zone; export: transition zone to deep ocean). These exchanges compare well with mean wind-induced transports and actual geostrophic cross-shore transport estimates. The region is divided into three areas: southern (18–21°N), central (21–23.5°N), and northern (23.5–26°N). In the northern area geostrophic import is roughly compensated with wind-induced export during both seasons. In the central area geostrophic import is greater than wind-induced export during spring, resulting in net import of both water (0.8 Sv) and nitrate (14 kmol s−1), but during fall both factors again roughly cancel. In the southern area geostrophy and wind join to export water and nutrients during both seasons, they increase from 0.6 Sv and 3 kmol s−1 during fall to 2.9 Sv and 53 kmol s−1 during spring.
Paraules clau: Coastal upwelling; Central waters; Frontal features; Double diffusion; Transport processes; Interleaving; Cape Verde; Geographic bounding coordinates (17–26°N) (22–14°W)
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Machín F., M. Emelianov, P. Rodríguez, E. García-Ladona, J. Menéndez, J. Salat
Scientia Marina, 72, 4, 779-799. DOI: 10.3989/scimar.2008.72n4779 (BibTeX: machin.etal.2008)
Resum: Veure
A methodology for recovering salinity from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) data is presented. The procedure exploits climatological relationships between temperature, salinity and depth to build regional characteristic curves by fitting a polynomial function that minimises both the variance of residuals and unknowns. Hence, salinity is computed and recovered as a function of temperature and depth. Empirical formula are provided to recover the salinity field from temperature-depth measurements for the Cantabrian Sea and Galician Area. The method is validated and applied in the context of two marine rescue exercises carried out in the Bay of Biscay close to the north coast of Spain and in the Finisterre region, where a series of XBT and conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) profiles were acquired during fast samplings. The results agree reasonably well with independent data in terms of the spatial structure, with the largest errors in the upper 100 m of the ocean and at intermediate levels. The first diagnoses of the surface geostrophic velocity fields obtained through the salinity reconstruction are coherent and may help in rescue and safety operations during marine emergencies. Hence, we recommend that a technical unit should consider this kind of expandable sampling strategy with both XBT and XCTD data during marine emergencies, since it provides useful and comprehensive information rapidly with minimal interference by means of formal operations on board search and rescue ships.
Paraules clau: XBT probes, operational oceanography, inverse method
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Sabatés A., J. Salat, I. Palomera, M. Emelianov, M.L. Fernández de Puelles, M.P. Olivar
Fisheries Oceanography, 16, 2, 130-141. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2419.2006.00416.x (BibTeX: sabates.etal.2007b)
Resum: Veure
The Gulf of Lions is one of the main anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) spawning areas in the NW Mediterranean. During the spring, low-salinity surface water from the outflow of the Rhoˆne is advected by the shelf-slope current along the continental slope off the Catalan coast. In June 2000, a Lagrangian experiment tracking these low-salinity surface waters was conducted to assess the importance of this transport mechanism for anchovy larvae and to determine the suitability of the tracked surface waters for survival of anchovy larvae. The experiment consisted of sampling the tracked water parcel for 10 days with three drifters launched at the core of the shelf-slope current where low-salinity surface waters were detected. The survey was completed by sampling the surrounding waters. Anchovy larvae from the spawning area in the Gulf of Lions were advected towards the south in the lowsalinity waters. The size increase of anchovy larvae throughout the Lagrangian tracking closely followed the general growth rate calculated by otolith analysis (0.65 mm day)1). However, advection by the current was not the only mechanism of anchovy larval transport. A series of anticyclonic eddies, originated in the Gulf of Lions and advected southwards, seemed to play a complementary role in the transport of larvae from the spawning ground towards the nursery areas. These eddies not only contributed to larval transport but also prevented their dispersion. These transport and aggregation mechanisms may be important for anchovy populations along the Catalan coast and require further study.
Paraules clau: anchovy larvae, continental waters, Engraulis encrasicolus, Mediterranean, transport
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Salat J., M. Emelianov, J. L. Jurado
, Rapports et Proces-verbaux des Réunions. Com. Int. Explor. Sci. Mer Mediterranée, CIESM.. Ed. CIESM. 38, 197. Salat, M. Emelianov,. (BibTeX: salat.etal.2007e)
Resum: Veure
The meteorological conditions in winter 2005, with anomalously low precipitacion and unusual persistency of notherlies over the NW Mediterranean, caused a large extension both in time and space of deep convection processes. As a consequence, where convection typically gives rise to the Western Intermediate Waters (WIW) a New Western Mediterranean Deep Water (N-WMDW) was produced slightly denser (+0.01kg m -3), warmer (+0.05ºC) and saltier (+0.03) than the usual WMDW. Moreover, near the continantal slope, a cascading of colder and even denser water was found (-0.1ºC and +0.025 kg -3), formed over the shelf (C-WMDW). In both cases it appears the high surface salinity as a responsible for the excess of density. The origin of this higher surface salinity is discussed
Paraules clau: Air-sea Interactions, Deep Waters, Deep Sea Processes, Western Mediterranean
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Salat J., J. Pascual
, Rapports et Proces-verbaux des Réunions. Com. Int. Explor. Sci. Mer Mediterranée, CIESM.. Ed. CIESM. 38, 196. ISSN: 0373-434X (BibTeX: salat.pascual.2007c)
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Font J., P. Piug, J. Salat, M. Emelianov, A. Palanques
, Rapports et Proces-verbaux des Réunions. Com. Int. Explor. Sci. Mer Mediterranée, CIESM.. Ed. CIESM. 38, 145. ISSN: 0373-434X (BibTeX: font.etal.2007i)
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Fuda J. L., J. Font, J. García-Lafuente, G.P. Gasparini, C. Millot, M. Astraldi, S. Ben Ismail, V. Bertin, M. Emelianov, S. Escoffier, B. Manca, P. Raimbault, G. Rougier, J. Salat, C. Sammari, C. Tamburini, Y. Tber, E. Tesi, M. Vargas
, Rapports et Proces-verbaux des Réunions. Com. Int. Explor. Sci. Mer Mediterranée, CIESM.. Ed. CIESM. 38, 27. ISSN: 0373-434X (BibTeX: l.fuda.etal.2007h)
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Sabatés A., M.P. Olivar, J. Salat, I. Palomera, F. Alemany
Progress in Oceanography, 74, 2-3, 355-376. DOI: 10.1016/j.pocean.2007.04.017 (BibTeX: sabates.etal.2007)
Resum: Veure
The Mediterranean is globally considered an oligotrophic sea. However, there are some places or certain seasons in which mechanisms that enhance fertility may occur. These mechanisms and related processes are especially relevant when they take place during the period of larval development. This study analyzes how environmental conditions occurring in the NW Mediterranean, at local and seasonal scales, contribute to determine the temporal and spatial patterns of fish reproductive activity in the region. The structure of the bathymetry, types of bottoms, diversity of adult fish habitats, as well as mechanisms conditioning the primary production of the region determine the location of spawning, whereas physical processes (e.g., shelf-slope density front and associated current, continental water inflows, winter mixing, stratification of the water column) determine the final distribution patterns of fish eggs and larvae. High larval concentrations occur over the edge of the continental shelf in relation to the presence of the shelf-slope front and its associated convergence. However, this pattern is subject to considerable spatio-temporal variability, due to frontal mesoscale activity. High larval abundance can also be observed near the coast in zones with topographic irregularities that can greatly modify circulation favouring penetration of slope waters into the shelf. Finally, larvae of large pelagic migratory species are mainly distributed in areas under the influence of recent Atlantic Water (AW) and near the frontal system between these inflowing AW and the more saline waters of the northern basin. A pronounced seasonal variability regarding both the number of species and the number of fish larvae in the plankton can be observed throughout the year. The two dominant species, sardine and anchovy, have non-overlapping spawning periods, autumn–winter and spring–summer, respectively. The diversity of feeding patterns as well as the fact that different fish species have different spawning periods might reduce inter- and intra-specific competition for food resources in this area. Most NW Mediterranean fish reproduce during the spring–summer stratification period, when the phytoplankton biomass values at the upper layers of the water column are lower than in winter. The development of the Deep Chlorophyll Maximum in this period and the high zooplankton biomass associated to it offers an important food source for the larvae. Additionally, during this period the inputs of continental waters in certain areas are one of the fertilization mechanisms of surface waters and some species, as anchovy, takes advantage of this situation. Autumn–winter is the period with lower ichthyoplankton diversity, being dominated by sardine, which reproduces on the continental shelf. The mixing of the water column during winter is one of the mechanisms that enhances productivity on continental shelves. Moreover, there are no intense currents on the shelf and the circulation is usually.
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Font J., P. Puig, J. Salat, A. Palanques, M. Emelianov
Scientia Marina, 71, 2, 339-346. (BibTeX: font.etal.2007)
Resum: Veure
Time series measurements at a mooring site on the deep slope of the NW Mediterranean from October 2003 to July 2005 revealed the sequence of effects of the anomalously dry, markedly cold, and very windy winter of 2005 in deep water thermohaline properties. At the end of January, a dense water mass that was warmer and saltier than usual reached the deep slope mooring site. Almost simultaneously, the start of deep dense shelf water cascading episodes was observed in the Gulf of Lions’ submarine canyons. 30 days later, colder, fresher and even denser waters reached the mooring, with a 5-day delay from an intensification of the Gulf of Lions’ cascading. The signature of these waters was detected for 35 days, and by late spring 2005 a new stable water mass situation was reached, with higher thermohaline values than those that characterised the deep layer from October 2003 to January 2005.
Paraules clau: Dense water formation, cascading, submarine canyon, deep mooring, northwestern Mediterranean.
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Palomera I., M.P. Olivar, J. Salat, A. Sabatés, M. Coll, A. García, B. Morales-Nin
Progress in Oceanography, 74, 2-3, 377-396. DOI: 10.1016/j.pocean.2007.04.012 (BibTeX: palomera.etal.2007f)
Resum: Veure
In the NW Mediterranean Sea, anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) and sardine (Sardina pilchardus) are the most important small pelagic fish in terms of biomass and commercial interest. Round sardinella (Sardinella aurita) and Sprat (Sprattus sprattus) are also present in this region. This paper provides a general insight into the ecology of these species through a revision of the information available in an environmental context and in relation to exploitation features. Spawning habitats of the two main species, anchovy and sardine, are clearly differentiated based on water mass characteristics reducing the overlapping between their early developmental stages. Larval distribution is also related to major productivity mechanisms of the respective spawning seasons. In spite of the different environmental regimes in which larvae of these species develop, growth rates are fairly similar. Trophic modeling highlights the important ecological role of small pelagic fish in North Western Mediterranean ecosystems. This review points out the gaps in knowledge necessary to understand the dynamics of small pelagic fish in the region and to progress towards a precautionary and adaptive management
Paraules clau: Small pelagic fish; Spawning habitats; Distribution; Ecology; Recruitment; Modeling; NW Mediterranean; Review
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Vargas-Yañez M., J. Salat, M.J. García, J. Pascual, M.C. García-Martínez, F. Moya
Rapports et Proces-verbaux des Réunions. Com. Int. Explor. Sci. Mer Mediterranée, CIESM., 38, 209. (BibTeX: vargasyanez.etal.2007c)
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Salat J., J. Pascual
Clima, Sociedad y Medio Ambiente (V Congreso AEC), . Ed. J.M. Cuadrat Prats, M.A. Saz Sánchez, S.M. Vicente Serrano, S. Lanjeri, M. de Luis Arrillaga, J.C. González-Hidalgo. Asociación Española de Climatología (AEC). Publicaciones de la Asociación Española de Climatología. Serie A, 283-290. Zaragoza. (BibTeX: salat.pascual.2006)
Resum: Veure
This text presents the air and sea temperature trends observed along the last 32 years in a coastal station located in the Western Mediterranean, over 90 m depth. The evolution of the interannual variability of the sea level during the last 15 years is also presented. The main results show an increase of temperature, especially during the spring period which implies an advance of the summer conditions at sea. The increasing trend observed in sea level can be related with the general trend of increasing heat content in the whole Western Mediterranean water mass.
Paraules clau: Tendencias climatológicas, Temperatura del agua de mar, nivel del mar, Ciclo estacional, Mediterráneo Occidental
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Salat J., M. Emelianov, J. L. López-Jurado
Proceedings 5ª Asamblea Hispano-Portuguesa de Geodesia y Geofísica, . Universidad de Sevilla. CD, Sevilla, Spain. ISBN: 84-8320-373-1 (BibTeX: salat.etal.2006a)
Resum: Veure
The meteorological conditions in winter 2005, with anomalously low precipitation and unusual persistency of northerlies over the NW Mediterranean, caused an unusual surface temperature and salinity distribution over the region. This situation particularly affected the convection process that produces the Deep Water of the Western Mediterranean (WMDW), which covered a region larger than usual. The information from satellite images and data obtained during EFLUBIO Cruise (March 2005) showed the presence of deep convection cells from the traditional \"MEDOC\" area near the Gulf of Lions extending up to the east of Menorca. Thus it is expected that a much higher volume of new WMDW than usual should be produced during that winter. A new WMDW, slightly denser (+0,01 kg m-3), warmer (+0.05°C) and saltier (+0.03) than usual has also been observed. It should be originated by the same convection process that typically produces the Western Intermediate Water (WIW), but due to the higher surface salinity and persistent winds, the resulting water became denser. The higher surface salinity may be related to both the low precipitation and the increase of deep convection in open sea that forced a higher extension of the Levantine Intermediate Water (LIW) compensatory upwelling. Moreover, at stations near the continental slope, a colder and even denser water was found (-0.1°C and +0.025 kg·m-3). This water should penetrate deeper than the deep waters formed in open sea and should be originated by cascading
Sondas XBT para fines operacionales: Aplicación y Validación. Informe Proyecto ESEOO (ESEOO-VEM2003-20577-C14-10)) (2006)
Machin F., M. Emelianov, P. Rodríguez, E. García- Ladona, J. Salat
(BibTeX: machin.etal.2006h)
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Pastor M.V., J.L. Pelegrí, M. Emelianov, J. Font, J. Salat
Proceedings 5ª Asamblea Hispano-Portuguesa de Geodesia y Geofísica, . Universidad de Sevilla. CD, Sevilla, Spain. ISBN: 84-8320-373-1 (BibTeX: pastor.etal.2006)
Resum: Veure
Historical data have been used to study the seasonal variability of the water column and nutrients in the Cape Verde region. The area of study includes the coastal upwelling system off Northwest Africa and the Guinea Dome south of Cape Verde Islands. Data from four oceanographic cruises carried out between 1973 and 1975 are used to draw q-S diagrams and vertical distributions of properties; these distributions illustrate a North-to-South transition from North Atlantic Central Water to South Atlantic Central Water and the interleaving between these two water masses in the frontal zone off Cape Blanc. Seasonal horizontal distributions of temperature and nutrients from the World Ocean Atlas 2001 dataset describe the meridional migration of the upwelling front and the intensification of the Guinea Dome during summer. Nutrient availability in the water column through the year is explored in the Guinea Dome area.
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Rubio A., P.A. Arnau, M. Espino, M.M. Flexas, G. Jordà, J. Salat, J. Puigdefàbregas, A.S. Arcilla
Progress in Oceanography, 66, 142-156. DOI: 10.1016/j.pocean.2004.07.012 (BibTeX: rubio.etal.2005c)
Resum: Veure
Through the analysis of satellite thermal images, mesoscale anticyclonic eddies have been observed to recurrently drift along the NW Mediterranean coasts. The presence of these eddies is known to cause transient "inversions" of the shelf-slope current. By means of an exhaustive analysis of sea surface temperature images a group of anticyclonic structures were monitored in September 2001. One of these eddy-like features was tracked and intensely surveyed by means of conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) casts and repeated fast surveys with Nm-Shuttle (oscillating CTD) and Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) measurements during the ET2001 oceanographic cruise. A well developed anticyclonic eddy was surveyed over the Catalan continental shelf, 60 km north of Barcelona. In situ velocity data revealed that the anticyclonic motion was characterized by surface velocities of 50 cm/s and a diameter of about 45 km. The signal of the eddy was found down to 100 m depth, well below the seasonal thermocline. The passage of the eddy modified the local flow, involving advection and subduction of surrounding waters.
Paraules clau: NW Mediterranean; Catalan continental shelf; Mesoscale; Anticyclone; Remote sensing
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Sanchez P., A. Gordoa, J. Salat
Procedings Congrés de la Pesca Marítima a Catalunya, l'Ametlla de Mar (Tarragona), . Direcció General de Pesca, Generalitat de Catalunya. Direcció General de Pesca. 1-9. Barcelona. (BibTeX: sanchez.etal.2005b)
Resum: Veure
Per poder diagnosticar la situació en què es troben les poblacions explotades en una determinada regió cal disposar de la màxima informació possible dels patrons d’explotació: captures, esforç, arts emprats, etc., així com de la biologia de cadascuna de les espècies implicades: cicles de vida, època de reproducció, hàbitats, etc. Clàssicament, amb aquesta informació, actualitzada i obtinguda al llarg del temps (quan més llarga la sèrie, millor), es pot realitzar una avaluació raonable de la situació en què es troba el recurs, poder donar pautes d’explotació que siguin sostenibles i fer previsions de la seva evolució. Així doncs, el paper del científic en aquest procés s'ha adreçat essencialment a d’una banda ampliar el coneixement de la biologia de les espècies al mateix temps que s’analitzaven les sèries històriques de dades de l'explotació, per extreure’n el diagnòstic i facilitar al gestor les seves tasques reguladores que haurien de conduir cap a una explotació sostenible.
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Arin L., M. Estrada, J. Salat, A. Cruzado
Continental Shelf Research, 25, 9, 1081-1095. DOI: 10.1016/j.csr.2004.12.011 (BibTeX: arin.etal.2005d)
Resum: Veure
The mesoscale distribution and seasonal variation of the size structure of phytoplankton biomass, as measured by chlorophyll a (chl a), was studied in the Ebro shelf area (NW Mediterranean) during three different seasons: autumn, winter and summer. In autumn and summer, when the water column was, respectively, slightly or strongly stratified and nutrient concentrations were low at surface, average total chl a values were 0.31 and 0.29 mg m-3, respectively. In winter, the intrusion of nutrients into the photic zone by intense vertical mixing and strong riverine inputs, produced an increase of the total autotrophic biomass (0.76 mg m-3). In the three seasons, the main contributor to total chl a was the picoplanktonic (<2 mi m) size fraction (42% in winter and around 60% in autumn and summer). The nanophytoplankton (2–20 mi m) contribution to total chl a showed the lowest variability amongst seasons (between 29% and 39%). The microplanktonic (>20 mi m) chl a size fraction was higher in winter (27%) than in the other seasons (less than 13%). The maximum total chl a concentrations were found at surface in winter, at depths of 40 m in autumn and between 50 and 80 m in summer. The relative contribution of the <2 mi m size fraction at these levels of the water column tended to be higher than at other depths in autumn and winter and lower in summer. In autumn and winter, nutrient inputs from Ebro river discharge and mixing processes resulted in an increase on the >2 mi m contribution to total chl a in the coastal zone near the Ebro Delta area. In summer, the contribution of the <2 and >2 mi m chl a size fractions was homogeneously distributed through the sampling area. In autumn and summer, when deep chl a maxima were observed, the total amount of the autotrophic biomass in the superficial waters (down to 10 m) of most offshore stations was less than 10% of the whole integrated chl a (down to 100 m or to the bottom). In winter, this percentage increased until 20% or 40%. The >2 mi m chl a increased linearly with total chl a values. However, the <2 mi m chl a showed a similar linear relationship only at total chl a values lower than 1mg m-3 (in autumn and summer) or 2 mg m-3 (winter). At higher values of total chl a, the contribution of the <2 mi m size fraction remained below an upper limit of roughly 0.5 mg m-3. Our results indicate that the picoplankton fraction of phytoplankton may show higher seasonal and mesoscale variability than is usually acknowledged.
Paraules clau: Spatio-temporal variation; Chlorophyll a fractionation; Picoplankton; Nanoplankton; Microplankton; Ebro river shelf; Northwestern Mediterranean.
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García Ladona E., J. Font, E. del Rio, A. Julià, J. Salat, O. Chic, A. Orfila, A. Alvarez, G. Basterretxea, G. Vizoso, O. Piro, J. Tintoré, S. Castanedo, M. Gil, J.L. Herrera
19th Biennial International Oil Spill Conference 2005 : Potentially polluting wrecks in marine waters, . IOSC. CD, 14718A. Miami, USA. (BibTeX: garcialadona.etal.2005)
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Vargas-Yañez M., J. Salat, M.L. Fernández de Puelles, J.L. López-Jurado, J. Pascual, T. Ramirez, D. Cortés, I. Franco
Journal of Geophysical Research, 110, C10019, 1-18. DOI: 10.1029/2004JC002799 (BibTeX: vargasyanez.etal.2005a)
Resum: Veure
Different works appearing during the last decade show that the western Mediterranean has suffered a temperature and salinity increase during the 20th century. Most of these works analyze long-term trends in Levantine Intermediate Water (LIW) and Western Mediterranean Deep Water (WMDW); those dealing with changes in shallow and coastal waters are very scarce. It is still an open question whether these changes are due to meteorological factors occurring in the western Mediterranean or if they are caused by the salinity increase of the water masses contributing to deep water formation. In this work we analyze the data obtained in the last decade of the 20th century (and longer time series in some cases) within the frame of six projects aimed at the systematic collection of hydrographic data at fixed stations in the northern sector of the western Mediterranean (mainly in coastal areas). We detect strong warming trends in those stations located in the continental shelf (and probably with no influence of the LIW). This result could indicate that changes observed in the WMDW cannot be explained only on the basis of changes imported from the eastern basin. Another striking result is that these trends are an order of magnitude higher than those reported for the rest of the century, indicating that the 1990s have been an exceptionally warm decade. On the other hand, time series affected by the LIW show a salinity increase, and in some cases this is not accompanied by the corresponding temperature increment, indicating that the LIW salinity increase could also be a factor to be taken into account.
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Lloret J., I. Palomera, J. Salat, I. Sole
Fisheries Oceanography, 13, 2, 102-110. DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-2419.2003.00279.x (BibTeX: lloret.etal.2004a)
Resum: Veure
Time series analyses (Box-Jenkins models) were used to study the influence of river runoff and wind mixing index on the productivity of the two most abundant species of small pelagic fish exploited in waters surrounding the Ebre (Ebro) River continental shelf (north-western Mediterranean): anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) and sardine (Sardina pilchardus). River flow and wind were selected because they are known to enhance fertilization and local planktonic production, thus being crucial for the survival of fish larvae. Time series of the two environmental variables and landings of the two species were analysed to extract the trend and seasonality. All series displayed important seasonal and interannual fluctuations. In the long term, landings of anchovy declined while those of sardine increased. At the seasonal scale, landings of anchovy peaked during spring/summer while those of sardine peaked during spring and autumn. Seasonality in landings of anchovy was stronger than in sardine. Concerning the environmental series, monthly average Ebre runoff showed a progressive decline from 1960 until the late 1980s, and the wind mixing index was highest during 1994-96. Within the annual cycle, the minimum river flow occurs from July to October and the wind mixing peaks in winter (December-April, excluding January). The results of the analyses showed a significant correlation between monthly landings of anchovy and freshwater input of the Ebre River during the spawning season of this species (April-August), with a time lag of 12 months. In contrast, monthly landings of sardine were significantly positively correlated with the wind mixing index during the spawning season of this species (November-March), with a lag of 18 months. The results provide evidence of the influence of riverine inputs and wind mixing on the productivity of small pelagic fish in the north-western Mediterranean. The time lags obtained in the relationships stress the importance of river runoff and wind mixing for the early stages of anchovy and sardine, respectively, and their impact on recruitment.
Paraules clau: Box-Jenkins transfer function models, Ebre (Ebro), Engraulis encrasicolus, Mediterranean, river runoff, Sardina pilchardus, wind mixing
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Estrada M., J. Salat, M. Emelianov, L. Arín, D. Blasco, A. Morales
, Rapports et Proces-verbaux des Réunions. Com. Int. Explor. Sci. Mer Mediterranée, CIESM.. Ed. CIESM. 37, 96. Montecarlo (Monaco). ISSN: 0373-434X (BibTeX: estrada.etal.2004c)
Resum: Veure
The reduction of deep mixing extent and changes in phytoplankton distributions due to an anomaly in the circulation during winter are presented and compared with a typical winter
Paraules clau: Deep mixing, phytoplankton, NW Mediterranean, marine circulation
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Sabatés A., J. Salat, I. Palomera, M.P. Olivar, M.L. Fernández de Puelles
, Rapports et Proces-verbaux des Réunions. Com. Int. Explor. Sci. Mer Mediterranée, CIESM.. Ed. CIESM. 37, 432. Montecarlo (Monaco). ISSN: 0373-434X (BibTeX: sabates.etal.2004d)
Resum: Veure
The results of a Lagrangian survey waters of continental origin from the Gulf of Lions are presented. Three drifters were launched at the edge of the continental shelf around the core of the shelf-slope current and followed up to near Barcelona . The current was carrying surface waters with relatively low salinity from the Gulf of Lions, influenced by Rhone runoff. Monitoring of environmental conditions, plaktonic communities and anchovy larvae living in the surface water parcel tracked by the drifters was conduced in order to evaluate the suitability of these waters for the survival of anchovy larvae.
Paraules clau: NW Mediterranean, continental waers, advection, anchovy larvae, larval growth
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Berdalet E., C. Roldán, M. Latasa, C. Marrasé, M. Vidal, M. Estrada, A. Malits, J. Salat, M. Emelianov, A. Sabatés
, Rapports et Proces-verbaux des Réunions. Com. Int. Explor. Sci. Mer Mediterranée, CIESM.. Ed. CIESM. CIESM. 37, 313. Montecarlo (Monaco). ISSN: 0373-434X (BibTeX: berdalet.etal.2004d)
Resum: Veure
We studied physico-chemical (temperature, salinity, inorganic nutrients) and biological (phytoplankton pigment composition, bacterial numbers, protein, DNA, RNA, and POM) characteristics of a hydrographically diverse area of the northern Catalan sea during the stratification period (June 2000). The sampled stations were affected by a) continental shelf (coastal waters), and b) low salinity surface waters from the Gulf of Lions influenced by the Rhone runoff (called Plume), carried by the shelf-slope Catalan current. We compared these areas with oceanic waters. The relative fertilising effect of the Plume for the plankton communities is discussed
Paraules clau: nutrients, pigments, plankton, Rhone plume
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Sabatés A., J. Salat, M. Masó
Deep-Sea Research. Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers, 51, 545-557. DOI: 10.1016/j.dsr.2003.11.003 (BibTeX: sabates.etal.2004)
Resum: Veure
Physical and biological coupling in frontal zones presents a high spatio-temporal variability as a result of both the hydrographic complexity of such systems and the biological activity of the organisms. A permanent frontal system (density front and associated current), parallel to the bathymetry, is present in the shelf-slope region in the Catalan Sea (NW Mediterranean). This study presents the results obtained froma detailed examination of the frontal systemand larval fish distribution in a small area in the Catalan Sea, over the span of just a few days. A repeated transect of 11 stations, spaced 2.5 miles apart, was sampled across the front. The shelf-slope front presented a meandering structure with a wavelength of about 50–60km and an amplitude of about 10-12 km. The position of the frontal system on successive transects was shifting gradually, fromquite close to the edge of the shelf to about 10 kmtowards the opensea. This shift may reflect a frontal oscillation due to the passage of a half wave of a meander. During the phase in which the front draws nearer to the shelf, slope to shelf exchanges take place, with fish larvae accumulating on the coastal side of the front along with very low concentrations fromthere oceanwards. During the phase in which the front moves away from the shelf, shelf to slope exchanges take place, and fish larvae were beginning to be dispersed so that high larval concentrations were shifted in an oceanwards direction. While there were still relative accumulations on the coastal side of the front, these accumulations were not nearly as pronounced. On that occasion there was heightened upwelling on the oceanic side of the front with local peaks in chlorophyll biomass in this region. The results presented here have revealed not only that the fertilization mechanisms are associated with the front but have also shown that oscillations in the front have a decisive role in supplying nutrients to the photic zone on an intermittent basis. The temporal scale at which the frontal system oscillates also exerts a decisive influence on processes affecting concentration/dispersal of larval fish populations.
Paraules clau: Shelf-slope front; Frontal oscillations; Meandering current; Fish larvae; NW Mediterranean
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Emelianov M., J. Salat, A. Sabatés
, Rapports et Proces-verbaux des Réunions. Com. Int. Explor. Sci. Mer Mediterranée, CIESM.. Ed. CIESM. CIESM. 37, 95. Montecarlo (Monaco). ISSN: 0373-434X (BibTeX: emelianov.etal.2004e)
Resum: Veure
The spatial distributions of temperature, salinity, density, zooplankton and ichtyoplankton were analysed on the basis of CTD sampling and plankton hauls performed during two oceanographic cruises in July and September 2003 along the Catalan coast. This summer season was anomalously long, hot and dry. The comparison of preliminary results with the data obtained in the same area in 1983 show higher temperatures and salinities at surface in July but not in September, while similar spatial distribution of the oceanographic parameters were found in both cases.
Impacto de los caudales fluviales sobre los ecosistemas pelágicos (2003)
Salat J., I. Palomera, J. Lloret
In: La directiva marco del agua : realidades y futuros, Ed. Leandro del Moral Ituarte, Pedro Arrojo Agudo. FNCA, Univ. Zaragoza, Junta Andalucia. 273-288. ISBN: 84-7820-700-7
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Theocharis A., The CIESM initiative group: A. Abdul Fattah, M. Astraldi, R. Boscolo, H. Bryden, G. Civitarese, J. Font, M. Gacic, G.P. Gasparini, D. Georgopoulos, I. Gertman, J. Gould, D. Jourdan, B. Klin, E. Kontar, A. Lascaratos, J.L. López-Jurado, C. Maillard, P. Malanotte-Rizzoli, B. Manca, G. Manzella, C. Millot, S. Papaevangelou, N. Pinardi, P. Povinec, L. Prieur, W. Roether, J. Salat, M. Snoussi, M. Tber, M. Triki, M. Vargas, I. Vilibic
In: Building the european capacity in operational oceanography, Elsevier Oceanography Series . Vol. 69. Ed. H. Dahlin, N.C. Flemming, K. Nittis, S.E. Patersson. Elsevier Oceanography. 78-86. ISBN: 0-444-51550-XISSN: 0422-9894 (BibTeX: theocharis.etal.2003)
Resum: Veure
During the CIESM workshop (Monaco, 22-24 April 2002) entitled \"Monitoring Hydrological Trends in the Mediterranean\", the review of existing data sets and analyses has revealed important variability in the dynamics and hydrological characteristics, in the past century, ranging from inter annual to decadal time scales. These variations are related mainly to local forcing and larger scale atmospheric parameters (NAO, ENSO, Indian monsoon). Moreover, abrupt events contribute to modification of the Mediterranean conveyor belt, also influencing the biogeochemical environment and the Mediterranean outflow in the Atlantic Ocean. The participating scientist have agreed on the need of a sustained multi-component long-term monitoring system based on both oceanographic and atmospheric observations and modelling. The group also proposed an expansion and strengthening of the on going relevant large operational programs by a \"climatic approach\" component
Paraules clau: Mediterranean, hydrological trends, thermohaline circulation, ocean-atmosphere interaction, long-term network
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Salat J.,
Revista de Física, 22, 1, 53-60. (BibTeX: salat.2002)
Impact of environmental factors on recruitment of anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) and sardine (Sardina pilchardus) off Western Mediterranean (2002)
Lloret J., I. Palomera, I. Solé, J. Salat
, Ed. Vera Agostini and Pere Oliver. Palma de Mallorca. ISBN: 84-931742-8-9 (BibTeX: lloret.etal.2002)
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Salat J., M.A. García, A. Cruzado, A. Palanques, L. Arín, D. Gomis, J. Guillén, A. De León, J. Puigdefàbregas, J. Sospedra, Z.R. Velásquez
Continental Shelf Research, 22, 2, 327-348. (BibTeX: salat.etal.2002a)
Resum: Veure
Among several field efforts undertaken in the framework of the EU MAST-III FANS project, three oceanographic cruises covering the Ebro shelf and slope regions (NW Mediterranean) were carried out on board R/V Garc!ıa del Cid between November 1996 and July 1997. A major aim of these three cruises was to provide insight into the seasonal variability of the distribution of physico-chemical oceanographic parameters and the shelf/slope circulation. In this paper we discuss the observed changes in the hydrographic structure, the spatial distribution of nutrients, chlorophyll and suspended particulate matter and the local circulation in relationship to the seasonal variability of the Ebro river discharge rates and the water column stratification. The added effects of mesoscale circulation structures and of the exchanges across the shelf edge are also addressed.
Paraules clau: Seasonal variations; Shelf edge dynamics; Water masses; Water exchange; Nutrients; Chlorophyll; Western Mediterranean; Ebro river shel
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Salat J., J. Pascual
, CIESM Workshop Series. 29-32. ISSN: 1563-2717 (BibTeX: salat.pascual.2002b)
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Sabatés A., J. Salat, M.P. Olivar
Scientia Marina, 65, Suppl. 1, 77-87. (BibTeX: sabates.etal.2001d)
Resum: Veure
The presence of a surface layer of a less saline water of continental influence (CIW) along the continental slope off the Catalan coast (NW Mediterranean) was observed in June 1995. This CIW was formed in the Gulf of Lions fro Rhône runoff and carried by the current associated with the shelf-slope front. This study analyses the spatio-temporal behaviour of that water of continental influence in relation to the shelf-slope front, and its effect on the distribution of fish larvae, in particular the larvae of the anchovy, Engraulis encrasicolus. Displacements of the front are observed to follow an oscillation with a period of eight days and an amplitude of 10 km. Anchovy larvae were associated with the presence of CIW, whereas the oceanic species Hygophum benoiti appeared in the region of the slope when the front, and the associated CIW layer, moved close inshore during its oscillation. The size frequency distribution for the anchovy larvae trapped within the CIW suggests that the larvae had been spawned further north, near the Gulf of Lions. It is concluded not only that larvae were transported by the current but also that their development had taken place entirely inside the CIW. The possible benefit to the survival of anchovy larvae of being kept inside that water, though they have been carried far from their spawning areas, is discussed in the basis of fluorescence and microzooplankton data.
Paraules clau: continental influence waters, shelf-slope front, transport, anchovy larvae, NW Mediterranean.
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Olivar M.P., J. Salat, I. Palomera
Marine Ecology Progress Series, 217, 111-120. (BibTeX: olivar.etal.2001b)
Resum: Veure
Anchovy and pilchard are the most abundant pelagic species in the NW Mediterranean Sea. They spawn in different seasons, subject to different environmental conditions: anchovy in summer, when the water column is stratified; pilchard in winter, when the water column is vertically homogeneous. The spatial distribution patterns of eggs and larvae of these 2 species are compared in relation to the main productive features in the region during their respective spawning seasons. The study was performed on the continental shelf off the Ebro River (NW Mediterranean) during June (for anchovy) and February (for pilchard). Sampling comprised a horizontal survey, designed to locate patches of eggs or larvae, followed by a Lagrangian experiment using stratified hauls to study the vertical distributions at different times of day in the water parcel tracked. While pelagic eggs and larvae of both species were present in the upper 70 m of the water column, we recorded differences in the preferential vertical distribution and migration patterns. Maximum concentrations of anchovy eggs and larvae were located in the upper 20 m; pilchard concentrations extended down to 10–40 m. Vertical displacements by the larger larvae at night occurred in both species, but with opposite patterns: anchovy larvae tended to aggregate in the upper 10 m, pilchard larvae exhibited greater dispersal at night, with a preference for levels below 30 m.
Paraules clau: Pilchard · Anchovy · Ichthyoplankton · Horizontal distribution · Vertical distribution · Diurnal vertical migration · NW Mediterranean
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Salat J., A. Theocharis
Actes du XXXVI Congrés-Assemblée Plenière de la CIESM, Monte-Carlo, Monaco, 24-28 Septiembre, Rapports et Proces-verbaux des Réunions. Com. Int. Explor. Sci. Mer Mediterranée, CIESM.. CIESM. 36, 3. ISSN: 0373-434X (BibTeX: salat.theocharis.2001d)
Resum: Veure
This round-table session benefited from the work of a previous CIESM session on the subject Following broad discussions, the group of participants (see list in Annex 1) agreed on the following acronyms for the major Mediterranean water masses
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Pascual A., M. Emelianov, G. Larnicol, D. Gomis, J. Salat, B. Buongiorno Nardelli, E. D'Acunzo
In: Proceedings of SPIE. Remote Sensing of the Ocean and Sea Ice 2000, Vol. 4172. Ed. C.R. Bostater, R. Santoleri. 31-36. Bellingham, Washington, USA. DOI: 10.1117/12.411708 ISBN: 978-0819438287 (BibTeX: pascual.etal.2000f)
Oceanografia: el paper de l'oceà en el canvi global (2000)
Salat J.,
In: Ciència, Tecnologia i Ambient: Anuari 2000. Enciclopèdia Catalana, Ed. Fundació Enciclopèdia Catalana. 223-228. ISBN: 978-84-412-0594-9 (BibTeX: salat.2000a)
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Lleonart J., J. Salat, G.J. Torres
Journal of Theoretical Biology, 205, 85-93. DOI: 10.1006/jtbi.2000.2043 (BibTeX: lleonart.etal.2000)
Resum: Veure
In the present paper, a normalization technique to scale data that exhibit an allometric growth is presented and the way it has to be used is described. It is shown how the method has been derived from the theoretical equations of allometric growth. Consequently, the method completely removes all the information related to size, not only scaling all individuals to the same size, but also adjusting their shape to that they would have in the new size according to allometry. In the particular case of isometry when the measures are of identical dimension, this normalization coincides with ratios (one of the most popular methods but only valid in this particular case). This procedure is a theoretical generalization of the technique used by Thorpe (1975, Biol. J. ̧inn. Soc. 7, 27}43; 1976, Biol. Rev. 51, 407}452) which was recorded as one of the most e$cient methods in the empirical evaluation done by Reist (1985, Can. J. Zool. 63, 1429}1439).
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Salat J.,
In: Anuari de Ciència, Tecnología i Ambient 1998, Enciclopèdia Catalana, Ed. Fundació Enciclopèdia Catalana. 223-228. ISBN: 978-84-412-0143-9 (BibTeX: salat.1999d)
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Estrada M., R.A. Varela, J. Salat, A. Cruzado, E. Arias
Journal of Plankton Research, 21, 1, 1-20. (BibTeX: estrada.etal.1999a)
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Olivar M.P., J. Salat, L.E. Beckley
South African Journal of Marine Science, 19, 233-244. (BibTeX: olivar.etal.1998n)
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Font J., The MTP-MATER Group (A. Monaco, S. Peruzzi, M. Canals, G. Chronis, M. Crepon, R. Mosetti, B. Price, E. García-Ladona, E. García Gorriz, J. Salat, J. Salas, S. Ruiz, C. Bouzinac, O. Rius, E. Del Rio, O. Chic, A. Julià, A. Castellón)
In: Third European Marine Science and Technology Conference, Project Synopses,Vol. I, Marine Systems, Ed. G. Ollier, P. Cochonat, L. Mendez Victor. 394-412. Lisboa, Portugal. ISBN: 92-828-2896-4 (BibTeX: font.etal.1998n)
Report of the Round Table on Mediterranean Water Mass Acronyms (1998)
Salat J.,
Actes du XXXV Congrés-Assemblée Plenière de la CIESM, 1-6 Junio, Dubrovnik, Croacia, Rapports et Proces-verbaux des Réunions. Com. Int. Explor. Sci. Mer Mediterranée, CIESM.. 35, ISSN: 0373-434X (BibTeX: salat.1998e)
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Lleonart J., J. Salat
FAO. In: FAO Computerized Information Series (Fisheries). 105. Roma, Italia. ISBN: 9251040567 (BibTeX: lleonart.salat.1997)
Catalan Sea and Adriatic Sea hydrography during T-ECHO Project cruises(years 1993 to 1995). Final Intermediate Report of T-ECHO Project, AIR Programme (AIR1-CT92-0314), European Commission (1996)
Salat J., M.I. Lloret, J. Sánchez Pardo
(BibTeX: salat.etal.1996a)
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Astraldi M., J. Font, C. Millot, EUROMODEL Group (M. Crepon, A. Harzallah, C. Herbaut, G. Madec, S. Speich, J. Tintoré, S. Alonso, E. García, D. Gomis, S. Alonso, A. Viudez, C. Alberola, M. Benzohra, I. Taupier-Letage, D. Bacciola, M. Borghini, F. Dell'Amico, C. Galli, E. Lazzoni, G.P. Gasparini, S. Sparnocchia, G. Chabert d\'Hieres, H. Didelle, P. Gleizon, D. Obaton, A. Castellón, E. García-Ladona, M.J. López-García, M. Manriquez, M. Maso, J. Salat, J. Nihoul, J.M. Beckers, P. Brasseur, E. Deleersnijder, S. Djenidi, P.M. Lehucher, L. Beautier, M. Chartier, F. Martel, L. Mortier, P. Brehmer)
Proceedings Second Workshop of the Mediterranean Target Project, . Ed. European Commission MAST Program. European Commission MAST Program. 120-126. Iraklio (Grecia). (BibTeX: astraldi.etal.1996c)
Evolución de la temperatura del mar entre 1973 y 1994 cerca de la costa catalana (1996)
Pascual J., J. Salat, M. Palau
In: La Méditerranée: Variabilités Climatiques, Environnement et Biodiversité, Maison de l'Énvironnement de Montpellier. 23-28. Montpellier, Francia. (BibTeX: pascual.etal.1996)
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Lleonart J., R. Franquesa, J. Salat, P. Oliver
Scientia Marina, 60, 2-3, 427-430. (BibTeX: lleonart.etal.1996a)
Resum: Veure
The bio-economic model Heures is a first attempt to develop a simulation procedure to understand the Northwestern Mediterranean fisheries, to evaluate management strategies and to analyze the feasibility of implementing an adaptative management. The model is built on the interaction among three boxes simulating the dynamics of each of the basic actors of a fishery: the stock, the market and the fishermen. A fourth actor, the manager, imposes or modifies the rules, or, in terms of the model, modifies some particular parameters. Thus, the model allows us to simulate and evaluate the mid-term biologic and economic effects of particular management measures. The bio-economic nature of the model is given by the interaction among the three boxes, by the market simulation and, particularly, by the fishermen behaviour. This last element confers to the model its Mediterranean “selfregulated” character. The fishermen allocate their investments to maximize fishing mortality but, having a legal effort limit, they invest in maintenance and technology in order to increase the catchability, which, as a consequence. will be function of the invested capital.
Paraules clau: Bio-economic models, North Western Mediterranean Fisheries, Fisheries Management
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Estrada M., C. Marrasé, J. Salat
Scientia Marina, 60, suppl. 1, 317-325. (BibTeX: estrada.etal.1996)
Resum: Veure
This article reviews the main factors affecting the in vivo fluorescence versus chlorophyll relationships of phytoplankton and presents a case study based on data from three oceanographic cruises carried out, at different times of the year, in the Catalan-Balearic Sea. In all three surveys, the in vivo fluorescence/chlorophyll ratio of the upper euphotic layer samples presented a diel variability with a minimum at or before noontime. The relationships between the spatio-temporal distribution of this variability and characteristics of photosynthesis versus irradiance curves obtained during each cruise are discussed
Paraules clau: Phytoplankton, fluorescence to chlorophyll ratios, quenching, diel variability
Phytoplankton assemblages across a NW Mediterranean front: persistence and variability (1996)
Estrada M., J. Salat
AGU Ocean Sciences Meeting 1996, . San Diego , California,USA. (BibTeX: estrada.salat.1996a)
Projecte de determinació de la circulació de les aigües de la reserva marina de les Illes Medes (1996)
Pascual J., L. Lloret, J. Salat, M. Zabala
(BibTeX: pascual.etal.1996a)
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Salat J.,
Scientia Marina, 60, 2, 21-32. (BibTeX: salat.1996c)
Resum: Veure
This paper is a review of the hydrography of the northwestern Mediterranean. It examines, at several scalesfrom basin-scale to local processes, water mass distribution, circulation and driving mechanisms and their variability. It isfocused on those aspects that may influence the success of spawning and recruitment of anchovy: stratification processes,continental influence, frontal instabilities, mesoscale events and shelf-slope exchanges
Paraules clau: Hidrography, review, NW Mediterranean, anchovy
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Maso M., Grupo VARIMED (P. Abelló, S. Agustí, M. Alcaráz, L. Arin, J. Baraza, A. Blaco, A. Calbet, J.I. Calderón, M. Carola, J.L. Casamor, A. Castellón, J. Catalá, J. Cebrián, A. Cruz, , A. Cruzado, J. Dachs, M. Delgado, A. Duró, M. Espino, M. Estrada, J. Flos, J. Font, E. García-Ladona, M. García, M. Garcias, J.Mª Gili, R. Glez-Quirós, T. Granata, N. Guixa, I. Hinojosa, A. Julià, J.C. Lemonnier, O. López, M. I. Lloret, M. Manríquez, C. Marrasé, P. Masqué, M. McLean, B. Molí, G. Morrison, K. Mura, M.P. Olivar, A. Palanques, M. Palu, A. Pardo, C. Pedrós-Alió, J.M. Pinot, S. Pla, P. puig, I. Rodríguez, M.A. Rodríguez, M.P. Rojas, E. Saiz, J. Salat, J.A. Sánchez, L. Sánchez-Velasco, M.P. Satta, P. Serret, B, Shirasago, R. Simó, J. Sorribas, J. Sospedra, J. Valls, D. Vaqué, R. Varela, R. Ventosa, M. Vidal, B. Vidondo
ISSN: 0210-0827 (BibTeX: maso.etal.1995g)
Resum: Veure
La campaña FRONTS 92 se desarrolló entre los días 15 de Octubre y 4 de Noviembre de 1992, a bordo del B/O García del Cid. Tuvo como objetivos el estudio de las relaciones entre la variabilidad temporal de factores físicos y fenómenos biológicos. Esta campaña formaba parte del proyecto de investigación Acoplamiento entre la variabilidad temporal de factores físicos y fenómenos biológicos en el Mediterráneo Noroccidental, subvencionado por CYCIT. La campaña oceanográfica Variabilidad de Mesoescala en el Mediterráneo Noroccidental (VARIMED), tuvo lugar entre los días 1 y 29 de Junio a bordo del BIO Hespérides. Tuvo como objetivos el estudio del papel de las estructuras de mesoescala en la circulación general de la capa superficial y en los procesos que determinan tanto la productividad biológica como el transporte de organismos y material sedimentario
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Pascual J., J. Salat, M. Palau
Proceedings of the International Colloquium: La Mèditerranée: variabilites climatiques, environnement et biodiversite, . 23-28. Montpellier, Francia. (BibTeX: pascual.etal.1995)
Evolución de la temperatura del mar entre 1973 y 1994, cerca de la costa catalana (1995)
Pascual J., J. Salat, M. Palau
(BibTeX: pascual.etal.1995b)
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EUROMODEL Group ., ( P.M. Lehucher, M. L. Beautier, M. Chartier, F. Martel, L. Mortier, P. Brehmer, P. Brehmer, C. Millot, C. Alberola, M. Benzohra, I. Taupier-Letage, G. Chabert d'Hieres, H. Didelle, P. Gleizon, D. Obaton, M. Crepon, C. Herbaut, G. Madec, S. Speich, J. Nihoul, J.M. Beckers, P. Brasseur, E. Deleersnijder, S. Djenidi, J. Font, A. Castellón, E. García-Ladona, M.J. López-García, M. Manriquez, M. Maso, J. Salat, J. Tintoré, S. Alonso, E. García, D. Gomis, S. Alonso, A. Viudez, M. Astraldi, D. Bacciola, M. Borghini, F. Dell'Amico, C. Galli, E. Lazzoni, G.P. Gasparini, S. Sparnocchia, A. Harzallah)
Oceanologica Acta, 18, 2, 255-272. (BibTeX: group.etal.1995a)
The hydrodynamics of the Western Mediterranean Sea (MAS2-CT93-0066) (1995)
EUROMODEL Group ., ( P.M. Lehucher, M. L. Beautier, M. Chartier, F. Martel, L. Mortier, P. Brehmer, P. Brehmer, C. Millot, C. Alberola, M. Benzohra, I. Taupier-Letage, G. Chabert d'Hieres, H. Didelle, P. Gleizon, D. Obaton, M. Crepon, C. Herbaut, G. Madec, S. Speich, J. Nihoul, J.M. Beckers, P. Brasseur, E. Deleersnijder, S. Djenidi, J. Font, A. Castellón, E. García-Ladona, M.J. López-García, M. Manriquez, M. Maso, J. Salat, J. Tintoré, S. Alonso, E. García, D. Gomis, S. Alonso, A. Viudez, M. Astraldi, D. Bacciola, M. Borghini, F. Dell'Amico, C. Galli, E. Lazzoni, G.P. Gasparini, S. Sparnocchia, A. Harzallah)
(BibTeX: group.etal.1995)
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Salat J.,
Oceanologica Acta, 18, 2, 227-234. (BibTeX: salat.1995)
Cruise report García del Cid SOFA-94.(EU MAST project MAS2-CT92-0046) (1994)
SOFARGOS Group ., (J. Font, J. Salat, M. Lloret, A. Julià, J.C. Gascard, J. Lanoisellé, G. Saragoni, C. Galli, M. Borghini, C. Richez, C. Rouault, J. Sánchez, M.R. Vitrià, C. Pedrós-Alió, R. Simó)
(BibTeX: group.etal.1994)
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Salat J., C. Marrasé
Marine Ecology Progress Series, 104, 205-209. (BibTeX: salat.marrase.1994a)
Resum: Veure
We develop a method to calculate grazing on bacteria determined by the disappearance of marked cells or particles. The method uses an exponential model based on population dynamics. We also describe 2 linear approaches: one is a model currently in use that takes into account only the initial proportion of marked cells; the other also includes their final proportion. An expenmental data set 1s used to compare the 3 models. The first linear model tends to underestimate grazing due to lack of information concerning the final proportion of marked cells. The second linear model, whch does take into account the final abundances of marked and natural cells, results in a good approximation to the exponential. We conclude that consideration of the final proportion of marked to natural cells IS crucial to correctly estimate bacterial grazing
Paraules clau: Bacterivory . Mathematical methods . FLB
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EUROMODEL Group.,(M. Crepon, A. Harzallah, C. Herbaut, G. Madec, S. Speich, J. Tintoré, S. Alonso, E. García, D. Gomis, S. Alonso, A. Viudez, C. Millot, C. Alberola, M. Benzohra, I. Taupier-Letage, M. Astraldi, D. Bacciola, M. Borghini, F. Dell'Amico, C. Galli, E. Lazzoni, G.P. Gasparini, S. Sparnocchia, G. Chabert d\'Hieres, H. Didelle, P. Gleizon, D. Obaton, J. Font, A. Castellón, E. García-Ladona, M.J. López-García, M. Manriquez, M. Maso, J. Salat, J. Nihoul, J.M. Beckers, P. Brasseur, E. Deleersnijder, S. Djenidi, P.M. Lehucher, L. Beautier, M. Chartier, F. Martel, L. Mortier, P. Brehmer)
In: Mast Days and Euromar Market, Marine Sciences and Technologies. Vol. 1. Ed. K.G. Barthel, M. Bohle-Carbonell, C.Fragakis, M. Weydert. CEC. 21-41. Bruselas, BL. ISBN: 9282656241 (BibTeX: group..etal.1993a)
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Olivar P., P. Rubiés, J. Salat
In: Benguela trophic functioning, Vol. 12. Ed. A.I.L. Payne, K. Brink, K. Mann and R. Hilborn. 71-82. ISBN: 0-621-11169-4ISSN: 0257-7615 (BibTeX: olivar.etal.1992b)
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Salat J., J. Tintoré, J. Font, D.P. Wang, M. Vieira
Journal of Geophysical Research, 97, C5, 7277-7281. (BibTeX: salat.etal.1992)
Resum: Veure
Near-inertial motion on the shelf-slope front off northeast Spain was monitored using surface drifters and moored current meters. On the shelf, strong inertial currents were generated by a wind burst. The inertial current amplitude was about 70 cm/s at the surface, 30 cm/s at the base of the mixed layer, and 10 cm/s in the interior. The observed near-inertial frequency on the shelf was about 10% lower than the local inertial frequency, suggesting that the near-inertial motion was embedded in region of strong anticyclonic shear. Also, the phase of near-inertial motion increased through the water column, indicating that the energy propagation was downward. By contrast, the surface inertial currents were only about 10 cm/s in the center of the shelf-slope front. Indirect evidence suggests that the observed small surface inertial currents were the result of rapid downward transfer of near-inertial energy in the front.
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Font J., J. Salat
In: Winds and Currents of the Mediterranean Basin, Reports in Meteorology and Oceanography. Vol. 1. Ed. H. Charnock. Harvard University. Harvard Univ.. Chap. 40. 225-240. Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA. (BibTeX: font.salat.1992e)
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Salat J., A. Castellón, J. Sánchez, J. Font, A. Julià, M. Manriquez, M.I. Lloret, A. Viúdez, J. Molero, J. Merino, T.C. Wilson
, Rapports et Proces-verbaux des Réunions. Com. Int. Explor. Sci. Mer Mediterranée, CIESM.. 33, 232. ISSN: 0373-434X (BibTeX: salat.etal.1992i)
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Salat J., A. Castellón, J. Font, A. Julià, M. Manriquez, M.I. Lloret, A. Viúdez, J. Molero, J. Merino, T.C. Wilson
, CIESM Workshop Monographs. Ed. CIESM. 33, 232. Monte-Carlo, Monaco. ISSN: 1726-5886 (BibTeX: salat.etal.1992k)
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Lleonart J., J. Salat
Informes Técnicos de Scientia Marina, 168-169, 1-116. (BibTeX: lleonart.salat.1992a)
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Salat J., M. Maso, A.J. Boyd
Continental Shelf Research, 12, 2-3, 355-366. (BibTeX: salat.etal.1992a)
Resum: Veure
Abstract--Water mass distribution and geostrophic circulation off Namibia are presented for April 1986, a month of relatively strong warm water intrusion from the north and west. The main result is that mesoscale processes develop in the area during the season when the coastal upwelling is relaxed, and these processes may be an alternative contribution to the fertilization of the region. The main features observed are the following. Angolan waters entered the region through the surface layer, with a maximum flow at 50 m depth. A frontal zone, centered between 20°S and 22°S separated Angolan and Benguela waters, at the surface layer. Anticyclonic eddies with a radius of 15-30 miles occurred off central and southern Namibia. Water upwelling off Walvis Bay appeared to derive from the core of the Angolan water, which laid at a depth of 50-100 m. Anticyclonic gyres might contribute to the upwelling off Walvis Bay and to the occurrence of a local sinking in its centre, about 50 miles offshore, thus allowing long residence time and recirculation. The occurrence of eddies may have been related to the general relaxation of the Benguela Upwelling System in the preceding 3 months and the penetration of the Angolan waters, in the region north of Walvis Bay, while in the south, the meanders of the oceanic front may remain most important.
Estudio hidrográfico y de corrientes marinas en la zona extrema de la plataforma y talud continentales frente a Barcelona. (1991)
Castellón A., J. Font, E. García-Gorriz, M. Manríquez, J. Salat
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Varela R., Grupo FRONTS (S. Agustí, P. Andreu, M. Alcaraz, J. Arístegui, E. Berdalet, J. Calderón, C. Castellón, A. Cruzado, M. Delgado, M. Estrada, X. Fusté, J. Gabarrou, M. Latasa, M. Manriquez, C. Marrasé, N. Martínez, R. Martínez, M. Masó, R. Massana, M. Palau, I. Palomera, T. Riera, V. Rodríguez, J. Ruíz, E. Saiz, J. Salat, J. Sanchez-Pardo
ISSN: 0210-0827 (BibTeX: varela.etal.1991h)
Resum: Veure
Las campañas FRONTS 1989,1990,1991 se desarrollaron dentro del marco del Proyecto FRONTS. Estudio de los efectos hidrodinámicos sobre la distribución y fisiología de las comunidades planctónicas en los frentes del Mar Catalán, subvencionado por la CYCYT (No.MAR88-0252). En particular, se trataba de analizar los efectos de inestabilidades intermitentes de mesoescala sobre la distribución del fitoplancton en un sistema frontal, y la influencia del frente costero catalán sobre la distribución espacio-temporal de las comunidades del zooplancton.
The interaction between Catalan and Balearic currents in the southern Catalan sea (1991)
Salat J., A. Castellón, J. Sanchez-Pardo, J. Font, A. Julià M. Manriquez, M. Lloret, A. Viudez, J. Molero, T.C.Wilson
, Rapports et Proces-verbaux des Réunions. Com. Int. Explor. Sci. Mer Mediterranée, CIESM.. Monaco. ISSN: 0373-434X (BibTeX: salat.etal.1991a)
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Salat J., A.Cruzado, J. Panouse
, Rapports et Proces-verbaux des Réunions. Com. Int. Explor. Sci. Mer Mediterranée, CIESM.. 32, 168. ISSN: 0373-434X (BibTeX: salat.etal.1990i)
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Salat J., A. Castellón, J. Font
, Rapports et Proces-verbaux des Réunions. Com. Int. Explor. Sci. Mer Mediterranée, CIESM.. Ed. CIESM. 32, 173. ISSN: 0373-434X (BibTeX: salat.etal.1990j)
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Font J., J. Salat, A. Julià
Marine Geology, 95, 3-4, 165-177. DOI: doi:10.1016/0025-3227(90)90114-Y (BibTeX: font.etal.1990b)
Resum: Veure
Current meter and hydrographic data have been used to derive the marine circulation pattern along the Ebro continental margin. The main flow pattern is found along the slope, linked to the water mass structure at basin scale. Circulation stability under all seasonal conditions has been proved by 2 years of current meter data recorded at 8, 50 and 100 m at a shelf break station. The data indicate a permanent barotopic flow to the southwest; this is only altered by inertial oscillations and some short periods of current reversals, probably related to instabilities in the shelf/slope front present in the area. The data collected during a hydrographic cruise (October 1984) confirm that the topography plays a major role in defining the circulation pattern. Because of a sharp change in the wide eastward projection of the northern Ebro continental margin, the slope waters penetrate onto the shelf through a concavity of the bottom topography and cause a permanent local upwelling northeast of the delta. Diluted waters from the Ebro discharge are used as indicators of the shelf circulation. Two different waters of continental origin have been identified on the shelf, a colder water found on the surface near the river mouth that spreads to the south, and a warmer water probably formed in the southern bay of the Ebro Delta. The buoyancy input introduced by these fresher waters, together with topographic effects, produces small current gyres on both sides of the delta and reinforces the shelffslope front that drives the general circulation to the south.
Modelisation de l'environnement marin. Rapport d'activités du sous-reseau Méditerranée (1990)
Nihoul J., S. Djenidi, J. Salat
8, 10-11. (BibTeX: nihoul.etal.1990a)
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Lleonart J., J. Salat
Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 46, 8, 1367-1374. (BibTeX: lleonart.salat.1989c)
Resum: Veure
The steady-state hypothesis assumed in the classical production models, or catch–effort data analysis, is unrealistic in normal fisheries, and dynamic production models have been developed in order to avoid such a hypothesis. In this paper a dynamic approach to production models is presented. This approach does not alter the classical equilibrium curves. It permits us to estimate their parameters from nonequilibrium fisheries data and to describe the trajectories followed by the fishery in the catch–effort plane, so it predicts catches, it has a 1-yr memory and introduces a new meaningful parameter, called inertia, representing the stock\'s resistance to changes in fishing effort. The approach is applied to two different sets of historical catch–effort data, and compared with the classical one showing an improvement in the fit. Résumé : Parce que dans le cas des pêches normales, il est irréaliste d\'utiliser l\'hypothèse du régime établi pour les modèles de production classique (analyse des données de capture–effort), des modèles de production dynamique ont été mis au point. Les auteurs présentent ici une approche dynamique des modèles de production. Cette approche ne modifie pas les courbes d\'équilibre classiques et nous permet d\'estimer les paramètres à partir des données de pêches de non-équilibre et de décrire les trajectoires suivies par la pêche dans un plan capture–effort de manière à pouvoir prédire les captures. Ce modèle possède une mémoire 1-an et permet d\'introduire un nouveau paramètre important, l\'inertie, qui représente la résistance des stocks à toute modification de l\'effort de pêche. Ce modèle est appliqué à deux séries de données historiques de capture–effort; il est comparé au modèle classique et l\'on constate qu\'il assure un meilleur ajustement.
Document préparatoire à l'élaboration d'un plan d'action pour l'étude de la circulation générale en Méditerrannée Occidentale (1989)
Astraldi M., J. M. Beckers, M. Crépon, E. Dellersnijder, J. Font, P. M. Lehucher, G. Manzella, C. Millot, L. Prieur, J. Salat
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Lleonart J., J. Salat, B. Campos
ICSEAF Collection of Scientific Papers. International Commission for the Southeast Atlantic Fisheries, 16, 177-190. (BibTeX: lleonart.etal.1989)
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Estrada M., J. Salat
Scientia Marina, 53, 2-3 SP, 203-214. (BibTeX: estrada.salat.1989)
Resum: Veure
A consistent hydrographical feature of the Catalan Balearic Sea is the presence of a doming of the isopycnals, approximately mid-way between the Catalan coast and the Balearic Islands. The Catalan and Balearic boundaries of this feature are marked by two fronts. In July 1983, high chlorophyll concentrations were found near the coast and in a deep chlorophyll maximum which extended across the frontal zones. The phytoplankton distribution was basically determined by the vertical stratification patterns of the water column. The distribution of oxygen and nutrients across the Catalan front, and the presence of relatively high diatom concentrations in the deep chlorophyll maximum of the frontal zone suggested the existence of intermittent fertilization events.
Paraules clau: fronts, phytoplankton, Catalan Sea, NW Mediterranean hydrography
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Campos B., J. Lleonart, J. Salat
ICSEAF Collection of Scientific Papers. International Commission for the Southeast Atlantic Fisheries, 16, 63--76. (BibTeX: campos.etal.1989a)
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Wang D.P., M.E.C. Vieira, J. Salat, J. Tintoré, P.E. La Violette
Journal of Marine Research, 46, 321-332. (BibTeX: wang.etal.1988)
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Masó M., Grup PEPS (M. Alcaráz, P. Algarra, E. Berdalet, G. Ganzani, E. Carr, A. Castellón, A. Cruz, A. Cruzado, M. Delgado, O. Delgado, M. Estrada, S. Ferrer, J. Flos, J.M. Fortuño, X. Fusté, S. Mallo, M. Manríquez, R. Margalef, X. Modamio, T.T. Packard, M. Pagespetit, R. Ras, T. Riera, E. Saiz, J. Salat, F. Vallespinós, D. Vaqué, M. Zabala)
ISSN: 0210-0827 (BibTeX: maso.etal.1988e)
Resum: Veure
Todas las campañas se realizaron a bordo del B/O "García del Cid". Las tres campañas FRONTS (3-85, 6-85,11 -86) formaban parte del proyecto "Contribución de frentes hidrográficos costeros a la producción estival en el mar Catalán-Balear" (financiado por el CSIC y la ayuda nº PR84-0067 de la Comisión Asesora de Investigación Científica y Técnica). Las campañas PEP-86 y PEP-87 eran parte del proyecto "El máximo profundo de clorofila" (financiado por el CSIC y el Comité Conjunto Hispano-Norteamericano de cooperación Científica y Técnica, ayuda nº CCA8411054). Las fechas de las campañas se dan en la tabla 1 y las estaciones visitadas se muestran en las figuras 1 a 6. El presente volumen de Datos Informativos recoge los datos básicos obtenidos.
Dinámica del medio marino. Frentes y Afloramientos (1988)
Salat J.,
In: Prospectiva en Oceanografía, Ed. M. Alcaraz. Public. del Gabinete de Estudios de la Presidencia (CSIC). 25-31. Madrid, ES. (BibTeX: salat.1988b)
Document préparatoire d'un plan d'action pour l'étude de la circulation générerale en Méditerranée occidentale. IOC-INF/772-prov. Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (UNESCO) (1988)
Astraldi M., J.M. Crepón E. Dellersnijder, J. Font, P.M. Lehucher, G. Manzella, C. Millot, J.M. Prieur, J. Salat
(BibTeX: astraldi.etal.1988)
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Olivar M.P., P. Rubiés, J. Salat
South African Journal of Marine Science, 6, 245-254. (BibTeX: olivar.etal.1988)
El estado actual de la oceanografía física en España (1988)
J. Tintoré J., Salat, G. Parrilla, J. Font, A. Cantos
In: Prospectiva en Oceanografía, Ed. M. Alcaraz. Public. del Gabinete de Estudios de la Presidencia (CSIC). Madrid, ES. (BibTeX: j..etal.1988)
Frontal instabilities off the NE Spanish coast. (1988)
Font J., J. Tintoré, J. Salat., M. Masó, D.P. Wang, M. Vieira
9, 43. ISSN: 1050-6705 (BibTeX: font.etal.1988k)
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Font J., J. Salat, D.P. Wang
, Rapports et Proces-verbaux des Réunions. Com. Int. Explor. Sci. Mer Mediterranée, CIESM.. 31, ISSN: 0373-434X (BibTeX: font.etal.1988j)
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Font J., J. Salat, J. Tintoré
Oceanologica Acta, SP, 51-57. (BibTeX: font.etal.1988)
A preliminary report on the shelf/slope front in the Balearic Sea. (1987)
Vieira M.E.C., D.P. Wang, J. Salat, J. Tintore
72-74. ISSN: 1050-6705 (BibTeX: vieira.etal.1987c)
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López-Jurado J.L., J. Tintoré, J. Salat, Ll. Miralles, A. Jansà
Annales Geophysicae. Atmospheres, Hydrospheres and Space Sciences, 5B, 1, 55-60. (BibTeX: lopezjurado.etal.1987)
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Font J., A. Julià, J. Rovira, J. Salat, J. Sánchez-Pardo
Acta Geologica Hispánica, 21-22, t, parte 2, 483-489. (BibTeX: font.etal.1987b)
Resum: Veure
El análisis hidrográfico de las masas de agua en la plataforma continental del Ebro y las concentraciones de diversos microcontaminantes orgánicos en los sedimentos en las proximidades del delta, permiten aportar conclusiones sobre el régimen de circulación marina. Las aguas del río son frenadas por la corriente procedente del NE, ocasionando que parte del material en suspensión sedimente en el centro de un giro anticiclónico que se forma cerca de la desembocadura. El resto del material particulado es arrastrado hacia el S y desplazado progresivamente hacia la costa.
Paraules clau: Hidrografía. Plataforma continental del Ebro. Circulación marina. Microcontaminantes orgánicos. Sedimentos.
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Boyd A., J. Salat, M. Masó
South African Journal of Marine Science, 5, 107-120. (BibTeX: boyd.etal.1987)
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Salat J., J. Font
Annales Geophysicae. Atmospheres, Hydrospheres and Space Sciences, 5 B, 1, 49-54. (BibTeX: salat.font.1987b)
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Alcaráz Grup PEPS (M., A. Castellón, A. Cruz, M. Delgado, M. Estrada, F. Fernández, J. Flos, X. Fusté, E. Gutiérrez, A. Lobo, M. Manríquez, R. Margalef, C. Marrasé, M. Masó, R. Ras, J. Romero, J. Salat, L. J. Tellería, F. Vallespinós, J. Zavatti)
Resum: Veure
Las campañas PEP (Producció Estival Profunda) se realizaron a bordo del B/O García del Cid, del 11 al 30 de julio de 1982, del 30 de junio al 17 de julio de 1983 y del 15 al 30 de mayo de 1948, como parte del Proyecto "Transferéncia vertical del nitrógeno y carbono en el mar Catalán durante el periodo de estratificación". Las estaciones visitadas durante cada una de las campañas se muestran en las fig. 1 a 3. El presente volúmen de Datos Informativos recoge los datos básicos obtenidos.
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Lleonart J., J. Salat
ICSEAF Collection of Scientific Papers. International Commission for the Southeast Atlantic Fisheries, 13, II, 89-98. (BibTeX: lleonart.salat.1986b)
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634.7 Kb
Pérez F. F., M. Estrada , J. Salat
Investigación Pesquera, 50, 3, 333-351. (BibTeX: f.perez.etal.1986a)
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Lleonart J., J. Salat, B. Roel
ICSEAF Collection of Scientific Papers. International Commission for the Southeast Atlantic Fisheries, 12, 1, 119-146. (BibTeX: lleonart.etal.1985e)
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Lleonart J., J. Salat , E. MacPherson
Fisheries Research, 3, 61-79. (BibTeX: lleonart.etal.1985k)
Resum: Veure
A generalized method of VPA, called CVPA, including the effect of cannibalism is presented. In this method, natural mortality was split into two components, one depending on cannibalism and the other, which remains constant, due to all other natural causes. These are not evaluated, but the method enables us to include new mortality causes when they are quantified. This method was applied to Cape hake (Merluccius capensis) off the coast of Namibia, from latitudes 25 to 30°S. The results were compared to the values obtained using the standard VPA. Significant differences in number of fish at any given age and natural mortality were found between these two methods, showing that standard VPA unde~- estimates the values for the youngest age groups. Biomass levels at a given age show the same trend somewhat attenuated
Datos oceanográficos básicos de las campañas ARECES (años 1983, 84 y 85) (1985)
Masó M., A. Castellón , J. Salat
ISSN: 0210-0827 (BibTeX: maso.etal.1985e)
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Salat J., J. Lleonart
L'Escaire, 13, 52-55. (BibTeX: salat.lleonart.1985f)
Masses d'aigua i circulació a la Mediterrània (1985)
Salat J., J. Font
In: L'Oceanografia. I. Introducció a l'ecologia marina mediterrània, Quaderns d'Ecologia Aplicada. Ed. Diput. de Barcelona. Servei del Medi Ambient. Gabinet de Publicacions. Chap. 8. 61-98. ISBN: 84-505-1422-3ISSN: 0211-0652 (BibTeX: salat.font.1985a)
Some observations on Rhone fresh water plume in the Catalan coast (1985)
Castellón A., J. Salat , M. Masó
, Rapports et Proces-verbaux des Réunions. Com. Int. Explor. Sci. Mer Mediterranée, CIESM.. 29, 119-120. ISSN: 0373-434X (BibTeX: castellon.etal.1985a)
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Lleonart J., J. Salat , E. MacPherson
In: Simposio Internacional sobre las áreas de Afloramiento más importantes del Oeste Africano (Cabo Blanco y Benguela), Vol. II. Ed. C. Bas, R. Margalef, P. Rubies. IIP-CSIC. 1041-1052. Barcelona (E). ISBN: Dep. Legal B.28223 (BibTeX: lleonart.etal.1985j)
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Olivar M.P., P. Rubiés, J. Salat
In: Simposio Internacional sobre las áreas de Afloramiento más importantes del Oeste Africano (Cabo Blanco y Benguela), Vol. I. Ed. C. Bas, R. Margalef, P. Rubies. IIP-CSIC. 471-477. Barcelona (E). ISBN: Dep. Legal B.28223 (BibTeX: olivar.etal.1985)
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Parrilla G., J. Salat
Rapports et Proces-verbaux des Réunions. Com. Int. Explor. Sci. Mer Mediterranée, CIESM., 28, 2, 91-92. (BibTeX: parrilla.salat.1983a)
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Lleonart J., J. Salat , E. Macpherson
ICSEAF Collection of Scientific Papers. International Commission for the Southeast Atlantic Fisheries, 10, 1, 111-128. (BibTeX: lleonart.etal.1983a)
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Salat J.,
, Rapports et Proces-verbaux des Réunions. Com. Int. Explor. Sci. Mer Mediterranée, CIESM.. 28, 73-77. ISSN: 0373-434X (BibTeX: salat.1983e)
Proyecto CARON: Estudio de la formación y distribución del agua profunda mediterránea en el mar Catalán y regiones adyacentes (CAICYT 324B/79) (1983)
Salat J.,
(BibTeX: salat.1983f)
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Olivar M.P., P. Rubiés , J. Salat
ICSEAF Collection of Scientific Papers. International Commission for the Southeast Atlantic Fisheries, 9, II, 241-248. (BibTeX: olivar.etal.1982)
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Salat J.,
ICSEAF Collection of Scientific Papers. International Commission for the Southeast Atlantic Fisheries, 9, II, 297-318. (BibTeX: salat.1982c)
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Salat J., A. Cruzado
Proceedings V Journées Études Pollutions, Rapports et Proces-verbaux des Réunions. Com. Int. Explor. Sci. Mer Mediterranée, CIESM.. Ed. CIESM. 911-916. ISSN: 0373-434X (BibTeX: salat.cruzado.1981d)
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Olivar M.P., J. Salat, P. Rubiés
ICSEAF Collection of Scientific Papers. International Commission for the Southeast Atlantic Fisheries, 8, II, 175-183. (BibTeX: olivar.etal.1981)
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Serra J., J. Salat, A. Cruzado
Proceedings V Journées Études Pollutions. CIESM, . 949-952. Cagliari, IT. (BibTeX: serra.etal.1981)
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Salat J.,
ICSEAF Collection of Scientific Papers. International Commission for the Southeast Atlantic Fisheries, 8, II, 195-219. (BibTeX: salat.1981c)
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Cruzado A., J. Salat
In: Coastal Upwelling, Coastal and Estuarine Sciences, Vol. 1. Ed. F. A. Richards. AGU. American Geophysical Union. 167-175. Washington D.C. (USA). DOI: 10.1029/CO001 ISBN: 0-87590-250-2 (BibTeX: cruzado.salat.1981)
Resum: Veure
Temperature and salinity distributions show important longshore structures that help define the circulation pattern in the widening shelf area south of Cabo Bojador, off Western Sahara. Two mechanisms, one a two-cell cross-shelf circulation and another based on the bending of the flow lines over the bottom contours, interact to fertilize the region. The two-cell circulation acts in the northern sections under the pressure of a frontal zone created by warm surface water that forces sinking of upwelled water. The circulation changes to a one-cell type in the middle sections and is less affected by the front. In the southern sections, the onshore bottom flow practically vanishes, giving rise to a longshore flow pattern that follows the bottom contours at all depths. In the north a tongue of more saline water protrudes from the frontal zone; the tongue is surrounded by less saline deep water that upwells into the coastal zone and offshore at the surface. Both waters are finally mixed in the southern sections.
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Salat J., A. Cruzado
Rapports et Proces-verbaux des Réunions. Com. Int. Explor. Sci. Mer Mediterranée, CIESM., 27, 6, 201-209. (BibTeX: salat.cruzado.1981c)
Proyecto TANIT: Estudio oceanográfico del Mar Catalán. Informe CAICYT 1405/75 (1980)
Cruzado A., J. Salat, L. Miralles, J. Font
(BibTeX: cruzado.etal.1980a)
Development of computer method for processing drift-card data and analysis of DRIFTEX results (IOC/UNEP, MED-VI Pilot Project (MED POL),SC/558225) (1979)
Cruzado A., J. Salat, L. Miralles, J. Font, M.A. Gerges
(BibTeX: cruzado.etal.1979a)
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Salat J., J. Font , A. Cruzado
ISSN: 0210-0827 (BibTeX: salat.etal.1978f)
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Salat J., M. Manriquez , A. Cruzado
Investigación Pesquera, 42, 2, 255-272. (BibTeX: salat.etal.1978b)
Hidrografia del Mar Catalan (1977)
Cruzado A., J. Salat, J. Font
ISSN: 0210-0827 (BibTeX: cruzado.etal.1977b)
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Salat J., J. Font
In: 8th International Colloquium on Ocean Hydrodynamics, Bottom Turbulence, Elsevier Oceanographic Series. Vol. 19. Ed. J.C.J. Nihoul. Elsevier. 269-273. ISBN: 0-444-41574-2 (BibTeX: salat.font.1977a)
Resum: Veure
Temperature profiles taken in the NW Africa upwelling region show the presence of internal waves. Some preliminary arguments and hypothesis are drown trying to explain the generation of these waves and their relationship with coastal upwelling
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Ballester A., A. Cruzado , A. Julià , M. Manríquez , J. Salat